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Diary of 
A Tar Heel Confederate Soldier 


Stone Publishing Company 

Charlotte, N. C. 

Copyright, 1913 
by L. LEON 


This diary was commenced for the fun of writing 
down my experience as a soldier from the Old North 
State. I never thought for a moment that I would 
put it in print; but now that I am getting old and 
have read so many histories written by our officers, 
but have never seen in print a history written by a 

I know that my diary is truly the life of the man 
behind the gun, therefore I make bold to publish it. 
I am sure my experience was that of other privates, 
and a true history of my companies and regiments, as 
well as the Brigade, Division, and even Corp that I 
belonged to. I am certain that the men of '61 to 
'65 who read this will recall most vividly the camp- 
ing, marching, fighting and suffering they endured 
in those never-to-be-forgotten days of long ago. And 
to the younger generation of Southern-born it will 
show how we endured and suffered, but still fought on 
for the cause we know was right. 

L. Leon. 


The Beginning 

April 25, 1861 — I belong to the Charlotte Grays, 
Company C, First North Carolina Regiment. We 
left home for Raleigh. Our company is commanded 
by Capt. Egbert Ross. We are all boys between the 
ages of eighteen and twenty-one. We offered our 
services to Governor Ellis, but were afraid he would 
not take us, as we are so young; but before we were 
called out our company was ordered to go to the 
United States Mint in our town and take same. We 
marched down to it, and it was surrendered to us. 
We guarded it several days, when we were ordered 
to Raleigh, and left on the above date. 

Our trip was full of joy and pleasure, for at every 
station where our train stopped the ladies showered 
us with flowers and Godspeed. We marched to the 
Fair Grounds. The streets were lined with people, 
cheering us. When we got there our company was 
given quarters, and, lo and behold! horse stables with 
straw for bedding is what we got. I know we all 
thought it a disgrace for us to sleep in such places 
with our fine uniforms — not even a washstand, or any 
place to hang our clothes on. They didn't even give 
us a looking-glass. 

[ 1 ] 

Diary of a Tar Heel 

Our company was put in the First North Carolina 
Regiment, commanded by Col. D. H. Hill, Lieut- 
Col. C. C. Lee, and Maj. James H. Lane. 

We enlisted for six months. Our State went out 
of the Union on May 20th, and we were sent to Rich- 
mond, Va., on the 21st. Stayed there several days, 
when we were ordered to Yorktown, Va. Here they 
gave us tents to sleep in. This looked more like sol- 
dering, but we would have liked to have had some 
of that straw in Raleigh. 

The day after we got here our company was sent 
out with spades and shovels to make breastworks — 
and to think of the indignity ! We were expected to 
do the digging! Why, of course, I never thought 
that this was work for soldiers to do, but we had to 
do it. Gee! What hands I had after a few days' 
work. I know I never had a pick or a shovel in my 
hand to work with in my life. 

A few days after that a squad of us were sent out 
to cut down trees, and, by George ! they gave me an 
axe and told me to go to work. Well, I cut all over 
my tree until the lieutenant commanding, seeing how 
nice I was marking it, asked me what I had done be- 
fore I became a soldier. I told him I was a clerk in 
a dry-goods store. He said he thought so from the 
way I was cutting timber. He relieved me — but what 
insults are put on us who came to fight the Yankees ! 
Why, he gave me two buckets and told me to carry 
water to the men that could cut. 

We changed camp several times, until about the 
[ 2 ] 

Confederate Soldier 

3d of June, when we marched fifteen miles and halted 
at Bethel Church, and again commenced making 
breastworks. Our rations did not suit us. We wanted 
a change of diet, but there were strict orders from 
Col. D. H. Hill that we should not go out foraging. 
Well, Bill Stone, Alie Todd and myself put on our 
knapsacks and went to the creek to wash our clothes, 
but when we got there we forgot to wash. We took 
a good long walk away from the camp, and saw sev- 
eral shoats. We ran one down, held it so it could 
not squeal, then killed it, cut it in small pieces, put it 
in our knapsacks, returned to the creek, and from there 
to camp, where we shared it with the boys. It tasted 

Our comrade Ernheart did not fare so well. He 
went to a place where he knew he could get some 
honey. He got it all right, but he got the bees, also. 
His face and hands were a sight when he got the 
beehive to camp. 

June 10 — At three o'clock this morning the long 
roll woke us up. We fell in line, marched about five 
miles, then counter-marched, as the Yankees were ad- 
vancing on us. We got to our breastworks a short 
time before the Yankees came, and firing commenced. 
We gave them a good reception with shot and shell. 
The fight lasted about four hours. Our company was 
behind the works that held the line where the ma- 
jor of the Yankee regiment, Winthrop, was killed. 
After he fell our company was ordered to the church, 
but was soon sent back to its former position. This 
[ 3 ] 

Diary of a Tar Heel 

is the first land battle of the war, and we certainly 
gave them a good beating, but we lost one of our 
regiment, Henry Wyatt, who was killed while gal- 
lantly doing a volunteer duty. Seven of our men 
were wounded. The Yankees must have lost at least 
two hundred men in killed and wounded. It was their 
boast that they could whip us with corn-stalks, but to 
their sorrow they found that we could do some fight- 
ing, too. After the fight some of the boys and my- 
self went over the battlefield, and we saw several of 
the Yankee dead — the first I had ever seen, and it 
made me shudder. I am now in a school where sights 
like this should not worry me long. 

Our commander in this fight was Col. Bankhead 
Magruder. The Yankee commander was Gen. B. F. 

From now on I will never again grumble about 
digging breastworks. If it had not been for them 
many of us would not be here now. We returned 
the same night to Yorktown, full of glory. 

On July 1 8 we heard that our boys had again 
whipped the Yankees at Bull Run. 

Also, on July 21, again at Manassas. 

We changed camp a number of times, made forti- 
fications all around Yorktown, and when our six 
months were over we were disbanded, and returned 
home. So my experience as a soldier was over. 

I stayed home five months, when I again took arms 
for the Old North State, and joined a company raised 
by Capt. Harvev White, of Charlotte, and left our 
[ 4 ] 

Confederate Soldier 

home on April 23, 1862, at 6.30 P.M. I stayed in 
Salisbury until next night, when I, with several oth- 
ers, took the train for Raleigh, where our company 
was. We went to the insane asylum to see Lang- 
freid, who wanted to go home by telegraph to see his 
cotton and tobacco. After spending most of our day 
in town we went to camp four miles from Raleigh. 
We stopped a carriage, and the driver said he would 
take us to camp for three dollars. We halved it with 
him and he drove us there. We reported to Captain 
White, and he showed us to our hut. We were sur- 
prised to find it without a floor, roof half off and 
■"holey" all over. We commenced repairing, and went 
to the woods to chop a pole for a part of the bedstead. 
We walked about a mile before we found one to suit 
us. It was a hard job to get it to our hut. We put it 
up and put boards across and then put our bedding on 
It, which consisted of leaves we gathered in the woods. 
And now it is a bed fit for a king or a Confederate 

It commenced raining at dark, which compelled us 
to cover with our oilcloth coats. We did not get 
wet, but passed a bad night, as I had gotten used to 
a civilian's life again. 

May 31 — Up to date nothing transpired worth re- 
lating, but this morning got orders to leave. Left at 
6 A.M. Our company got passenger cars, and the 
balance of our regiment had to take box cars. 

June 1 — Arrived at Weldon, North Carolina, at 7 
o'clock. We set up our tents at Gerresburg, a short 
[ 5 ] 

Diary of a Tar Heel 

march from Weldon. Our company is close to the 
railroad track. We collected broom straw and made 
a bed of down of it. 

June 2 — We received some visitors from home. 

June 3 — Raining all day, but have a good time with 
the ladies in this neighborhood. They treated my 
comrade and myself only as Southern ladies know 
how to treat their soldiers — with respect and some- 
thing good to eat. 

June 4 — Still raining, and the roads are very 

June 5 — We were marched to town and received our 
arms — Springfield muskets. Next day went off very 

June 7 — At u o'clock to-night we were roused out 
of our sleep and marched to Weldon Bridge, as the 
river was so swift that it was thought the bridge 
would wash away. We went there to knock the sides 
off, so that the water could run over it, but we got 
there without tools. When they came the water was 
receding, so we returned to camp. 

June 8 — I am very tired from our first night's 

June 20 — Up until ^this date there has been noth- 
ing worth recording, but to-day got orders to fall in 
line with two days' rations cooked. Left at 12 M. in 
box cars. We knocked holes in them to get fresh 
air. We laid over six hours eight miles from Gerres- 
burg in order to let the passenger cars pass us. Several 
of our company left the train in quest of supper. We 
[ 6 ] 

Confederate Soldier 

found a house where a lady promised to give us sup- 
per for fifty cents each. As we were doing full jus- 
tice to her supper the train started, we left in a hurry, 
and did not have time to pay for our meal. I don't 
suppose she gave us her blessing. 

June 21— We reached Petersburg, Va., this morn- 
ing at half-past two, and had barely laid down with 
a brick wall for my pillow when breakfast was an- 
nounced in the shape of Mack Sample, who told us 
where we could get it. I ran the blockade with Katz, 
and went to see Mike Etlinger. He was not at home. 
Afterward we met Wortheim, and we all went again 
and got something good to eat. We then returned 
to our regiment, which is the 53d North Carolina 
Regiment, infantry, Col. William Owens, comman- 
der. We are enlisted for three years, or the war. We 
fell in line and marched to our camp, which is on 
Dunn's Hill, just outside of the city. 

June 22 — Nothing new. 

June 23 — Moved our camp two miles up the road 
toward Richmond. It is a very bad camp — low 
ground and muddy. But there is a factory here, and 
plenty of girls to make up for the damp ground. 

June 24 — We had a drill to-day, and went to town 
to see some friends. 

June 25 — Reported fighting near Richmond. 

June 26 — We received marching orders this morn- 
ing. The long roll beat at one in the night. We 
marched four miles on to Richmond, where we met 
some wounded of our army that had been injured at 
[ 7 ] 

Diary of a Tar Heel 

the Point of Rocks. We got to this place after 
marching all night, too late for the Yanks — they had 
gone. We stayed here until the 28th, then marched 
to Drewry's Bluff, twenty miles from Petersburg. 

June 29 — Arrived at Drewry's Bluff this morning. 
Here we met our brigade, commanded by General 
Daniels. The brigade has five regiments, all North 
Carolina troops, composed of the 43d, 53d, 32d, 45th 
and the 2d North Carolina battalions. When we got 
to our brigade we were left at Drewry's Bluff and 
the brigade marched on to Richmond, and we stayed 
here until the 30th. 

June 30 — Heard firing at Richmond. We are eight 
miles from there, and in reserve. 

July 1 — There is nothing new, only we can see the 
lines of battle over the river. They are still fighting 
around Richmond. 

July 4 — This is the day the Yankee general, Mc- 
Clellan, promised to eat dinner in our capitol. He 
did not, but numbers of his command did — that is, in 
our prisons. But they did not get any turkey. 

July 6 — We got orders to march this morning. 
Left here with two days' rations of corn meal and 
bacon in our haversacks. We got to Petersburg in 
the evening — fifteen miles — after a hard march. It is 
very warm, and we did not rest on the way, as it was 
a forced march. We camped on Dunn's Hill. 

July 7 — We return to our factory girls again — all 
O. K., you bet. 

July 27 — Had a few friends visit us from home, and 
C 8 ] 

Confederate Soldier 

moved camp twice. To-night we were ordered to 
fall in line. Went to Petersburg, and there took the 
cars for Weldon. On the road a dreadful accident oc- 
curred. On the flat car that we were on, a captain of 
the navy with us had his leg cut off by a sheet of iron 
flying off the flat. Lieutenant McMatthews, Henry 
Wortheim and myself were knocked down, but not 
badly hurt. The captain died two days after. 

July 31— Up to this time there is nothing new. We 
are camped at Weldon. 

August 1 — From date to the 4th — nothing. We 
have a good camp. 

August 5 — We received marching orders to-day. 
We embarked on the train at Weldon, went down the 
Seaboard road a distance of twenty-five miles, and 
marched from there to Roberts' Chapel. Our com- 
pany and Company D were the only ones that went. 
We got there at 10 o'clock at night and laid in the 
woods until morning. 

August 6 — We fell in line and returned. We 
marched to Boykins and took the cars to our regi- 
ment again. This expedition was to capture Yankees 
that are stealing negroes. When we got there they 
had left. 

Up to August 19 — Nothing new. We have a very 
good time here by ourselves — get plenty to eat from 
the ladies and visit them whenever we can get out 
of camp. 

August 20 — Left here at 6 P.M. and arrived at 
Petersburg at 3 o'clock in the morning. Took the 


Diary of a Tar Heel 

same bed that I had the last time — the sidewalk — and 
the wall for my pillow. Katz, Hugh Sample, "Bat" 
Harry, Lieutenant Belk and some others were left 
behind, sick. 

August 21 — Left at 4 A.M. and arrived in Rich- 
mond at 6 P.M. Marched to Camp Lee, two miles 
from the city, and put up any tent we could get hold 
of, as it was raining very hard and too dark to see. 
We are all O. K. now. 

August 22 — Sam Oppenheim, of the 44th North 
Carolina Regiment, an old comrade of the 1st North 
Carolina Regiment, came to see me. He is stationed 
on the other side of the city. 

August 23 — Went uptown to see my brother, Mor- 
ris, of the 44th Georgia Regiment ; but his regiment 
had already gone to Gordonsville, so I returned to 

August 26— Up to date did not get half enough to 

August 27 — Three of our companies got Enfield 
rifles to-day. 

August 28 — Ordered to Drewry's Bluff. We left 
Richmond at 8 P.M. and got there at 2 A.M. We are 
camping on the old oat patch, near our former camp. 

August 29 — Lieutenant Belk, whom we left at Wel- 
don, sick, returned to us to-day. 

August 30 — Our company went to work to-day 
throwing up breastworks. 

August 31 — Still digging dirt. 

September 1 — Wortheim and myself went to Half- 

Confederate Soldier 

way Station, to get a box that was sent to us from 
home, but it did not come. 

September 9 — Up to to-day nothing new. Our reg- 
iment was paid off to-day, we receiving one month's 
wages — eleven dollars for a private, which I have the 
honor to be. 

September 18 — Nothing new, only plenty of bad 
weather and hard work. We received marching orders 
at 9 A.M. We arrived in Petersburg at 5 P.M. 
Saw several friends there. Left Petersburg at 8 
o'clock that night in cars for Wakefield. Arrived 
there at 11 A.M. 

September 19 — Left Wakefield at 9 P.M. and 
marched twenty miles — laid in the woods without shel- 
ter and it raining very hard. Therefore did not need 
to wash myself in the morning. 

September 20 — Resumed our march at 6 o'clock this 
morning. Arrived at Blacks Church after three hours' 
march, then turned about and tramped nine miles and 
camped for the night at Joyner's Church. 

September 21 — Left here at 6 P.M., marched nine 
miles, and halted for dinner. Our company being 
rear guard of the brigade, we had a hard time of it, 
as the roads are very muddy and we had to keep up 
all the stragglers. We reached Wakefield at 5 A.M., 
and laid in the woods and mud for the night. 

September 22 — We laid here all day. Cars came 
for us from Petersburg to-night and took us back. 
Got there at 12 at night, marched one mile and camped 
for the night. 


Diary of a Tar Heel 

September 23 — Left here this morning at 10 o'clock 
and got to our old camp at 4 o'clock this evening. 
This expedition was to strengthen Longstreet's forces 
near Suffolk. We got there after he was relieved 
and the siege of Suffolk abandoned. 

September 27 — Up to to-day nothing new, only to- 
day is my New Year (the Jewish New Year). 

October — This month passed off with nothing new, 
except Katz returned on the 7th, and Donau was dis- 
charged. We are still on our old camp. 

November 5 — There is nothing for me to write. 
To-day Wortheim and myself went to Petersburg to 
get a box that was sent from home, and while there 
we had a very good time. 

November 6 — We commenced to put up winter 
quarters to-day. It is very cold and sleeting. 

November 7 — It commenced to snow this morning 
at 6 o'clock, and continued until one in the after- 
noon. It is three inches deep. We got some whiskey 
into camp, which tasted very good and made us for- 
get the cold. The balance of this month passed off 
very quietly. We are hard at work on our winter huts. 

December 1 and 2 — We moved into our winter 
quarters. They are very good and strong. There are 
ten men in each hut. 

December 3 — Katz and myself went to Petersburg 
to-day. We met with friends, and the consequence 
you can imagine. The headache we had next day 
was caused by too much whiskey. 

December 8 — My birthday to-day. I am a mart 
[ 12 ] 

Confederate Soldier 

twenty-one years old, but I must say that I have been 
doing a man's duty before I was twenty-one, provid- 
ing a soldier's duty is a man's. I spent to-day in 
bringing mud to our palace for a fireplace. 

December 13 — There was nothing to record up to 
the 13th, but to-day had division review from 9 A.M. 
until 5 P.M. 

December 14 — Rumored that we will leave Virginia 
for North Carolina. 

December 15 — Sure enough. Got orders to cook 
five days' rations. We started at 2 A.M. and got to 
Petersburg at 8 o'clock that night. I ran the block- 
ade, and went uptown and stayed all night and had 
a very good time. 

December 16 — I returned this morning and was not 
missed. We left here with the cars at 8 A.M., and 
got to Weldon at 3 P.M. on the 17th. 

December 17 — Laid in an old field until 8 P.M., and 
suffered a great deal from cold. We left here on flat 
cars and rode all night on them. We arrived at 
Goldsboro at 10 A.M. on the 18th. The ladies on the 
road, especially those at Wilson, were very kind to 
us. They gave us plenty to eat, which we were very 
much in need of. 

December 18 — We marched through town and lay 
all night in an open field without tents. It is cer- 
tainly bitter cold. The only fires we could make were 
from the fence rails, as the woods were too far for us 
to get to. 

December 19 — We got away from the open field at 

Diary of a Tar Heel 

12 M., and went two miles out of town, and camped 
in the woods. We met the Bethel regiment to-day. 
I met quite a number of old friends and comrades of 
my old company. We compared notes on soldiering. 
We came to the conclusion that at Yorktown we were 
playing soldier, but now there is no play in it. We 
are expecting a fight every hour. 

December 20 — Went uptown to-day on French 
leave, and when I returned was put on guard duty 
for going. 

December 21 — I went to the creek to wash my 
clothing and myself, and when I got back the water 
had frozen on my head so that I was obliged to hold 
my head by the fire so as to thaw it out. Wortheim's 
eye» are so bad that he can hardly see. Sam Wilson 
broke his shoulder blade. 

December 25. — There is nothing new up to to-day, 
Christmas. We moved our camp a little piece. Eigen- 
brun came to see us to-day from home, and brought 
me a splendid cake from Miss Clara Phile. This is 
certainly a hard Christmas for us — bitter cold, rain- 
ing and snowing all the time, and we have no tents. 
The only shelter we have is a blanket spread over a 
few poles, and gather leaves and put them in that 
shelter for a bed. 

December 26 — I got vaccinated to-day by Capt. 
Harvey White. It was raining very hard, and we all 
are as wet as dish rags. 

December 31 — All is quiet up to to-day, the last of 
the year. It is still very cold. 


The first Confederate Soldier killed in battle 


The Year 1863 

January 1 — This month we have done nothing but 
move our camp once, and drill. Had to send all our 
baggage away. Hereafter nothing more will be 
hauled for us in wagons. There are rumors flying 
about that we will soon leave here. 

February 1 and 2 — There is nothing new, but cold, 
cold, cold. 

February 4 — This morning, at 4 o'clock, we were 
waked up by the pleasant sound of long roll. We 
were ordered to get ready to march. It is very cold, 
snow nine inches deep. We laid in Goldsboro until 
noon, expecting to get cars to take us away, but were 
then told we would have to march to Kinston. We 
took up our line of march at 3 in the evening and 
halted at dark. It is truly awful. The snow is very 
deep and as cold as thunder. We marched eight 
miles without resting. We then fixed our bed in the 
snow and stole fodder for a bed and rails to make 
fire. We took snow, put it in our kettles, and made 
coffee. When I say coffee, I mean Confederate cof- 
fee — parched corn — that is our coffee. Ate our corn 
bread and bacon and retired to our couches and slept 
as good if not better than Abe Lincoln. 
[ 15 ] 

Diary of a Tar Heel 

February 5 — Resumed our promenade at 7 this 
morning, and for a change it is raining hard. There- 
fore the snow is melting. Consequently, the roads are 
nice and soft. Halted at 3 this evening — still rain- 
ing. We made ourselves as comfortable as possible — 
made a good fire to dry ourselves by, but the worst of 
it is we have no rations, and the wagons are behind. 
We went to sleep in our wet clothing, with a cup of 
coffee as our supper. It rained and snowed all night. 

February 6 — Nothing to eat yet. Wortheim, W. 
Eagle and myself went out foraging, to buy some- 
thing to eat. We got to one house and there was no 
one at home, but in the yard there were two chickens, 
which we captured, for we were afraid they would 
bite us. We went to the next house and ate our 
breakfast. One of the ladies asked us where we got 
those chickens. I told her that we bought them at 
the house before we got there. She told us she lived 
there and that there was nobody at home. I then told 
her the truth, paid her for them and left. The next 
house we got to we bought a ham, a peck of meal, a 
peck of sweet potatoes and some turnips. We took 
dinner in this house. We then returned to camp. We 
had a good reception from our mess, as they had still 
nothing to eat. 

February 7 — We could not march yesterday, as the 
streams were too high from the recent rains and snow. 
We left to-day at 12 M., and got one day's rations, 
hard enough to fell a bull. Marched on the railroad 
track all the afternoon. The main road was impas- 
[ 16 ] 

Confederate Soldier 

sable. We got to Kinston at 4 in the afternoon, and 
made camp in a swamp, two and a half miles out of 
town. We had nothing to eat, but slept good for all 

February 8 — Wortheim and myself went uptown to 
get something to eat. We got corn bread and bacon. 
On our road back to camp we bought four more 
dodgers of corn bread and gave it to our mess com- 
panions who did not go uptown. Our regiment moved 
on the other side of town in an old pine thicket. 

February 9 — We established a regular camp here. 
This last march has been a very hard one, and only a 
distance of thirty miles. But it took us from Wednes- 
day to Saturday, through snow, rain and mud ankle- 
deep and without rations. Kinston is a perfect ruin, 
as the Yankees have destroyed everything they could 
barely touch, but it must at one time have been a very 
pretty town — but now nothing scarcely but chimneys 
are left to show how the Yankees are trying to recon- 
struct the Union. 

February 13 — Nothing new. We have been fixing 
our camps. Our company has built log huts, from 
two to three feet high, and then put our tents over 
them — building a chimney to each hut or tent, and we 
are very comfortable. We got orders to cook two 
days' rations, and be ready to march in two hours, but 
did not have to go — in fact, nothing new until the 

February 25 — Henry Wortheim was sent home on a 
sick furlough, as he is very bad off. 

Diary of a Tar Heel 

February 26 — Two men out of our regiment were 
whipped for desertion. They were undressed all but 
pants and shoes, tied to a post, and each given thirty- 
nine lashes on their bare backs. The balance of this 
month nothing new, only very cold. 

March 5 — Up to to-day there is nothing worth re- 
cording, although we are getting black as negroes on 
account of our burning green pine. 

March 6 — Several of us out of our company went 
to Kinston and the battlefield. The Yankees are very 
poorly buried, as we saw several heads, hands and 
feet sticking out of the ground, where the rain had 
washed the dirt off of them. 

March 12 — We have had orders several times for 
the last six days to march, and a part of our brigade 
has had a fight. But this morning we took up our 
march at 5 o'clock. I saw Gen. D. H. Hill on the 
road and spoke to him, as well as his adjutant. They 
are friends from home and comrades of our first 
North Carolina regiment. We marched twenty miles 
and halted for the night — laid in line of battle all 
night with arms by our side. 

March 13 — Resumed our march at 8 this morning, 
got eight miles, when we got to our extreme picket 
posts. They told us the Yankees were one mile and 
a quarter from us. Then we marched half a mile 
further, when our artillery commenced the fight. It 
kept on all day, but very light. We drove in their 
pickets and advanced our line until dark. We are 
eight miles from Newbern — marched eleven miles. 

Confederate Soldier 

March 14 — This morning, at daybreak, cannonading 
was heard by us from General Pettigrew's line, which 
is on our left flank. We immediately fell into line of 
battle, our artillery opened fire, then we infantry ad- 
vanced our line on the Yankees. We halted in an 
old field and had for a breastwork a rail fence. We 
fought for four hours — hot at times. We had a num- 
ber killed and wounded. The enemy fell back on their 
stronghold — Newbern. This battle is called the Bat- 
tle of Deep Gully, as it was fought on that stream. 
We then took up our march again for Kinston. We 
got eleven miles and halted for the night. Our com- 
pany was the rear guard of the brigade. 

March 15 — Laid here all day, with two crackers for 
our rations, and these we got at night. 

March 16 — A picket came in this morning and re- 
ported the enemy advancing. We were put in line of 
battle to receive them, and after marching one mile 
up the road to get to our brigade we were put at the 
extreme left of our line, and made breastworks out of 
rotten logs. Stayed here one hour, when another 
picket came and reported them ten miles away. So 
we resumed our march for camp and got there at 7 
o'clock — twenty-one miles to-day. Tom Notter, 
Aaron Katz and myself pressed into service to-day a 
donkey and a cart with a negro, who took us to Kin- 
ston. Each of us drove at times, and I was fortu- 
nate enough to stall in a mudhole. We had to get out 
and lift the cart and donkey to dry ground again. 
Thus ends the march and fight at Deep Gully. 

[ 19 ] 

Diary of a Tar Heel 

March 20 — Katz went home to-day on a furlough. 
Nothing new up to the 23d. 

March 23 — We had a man whipped to-day in our 
regiment for desertion. 

March 24 — Commenced marching this morning, got 
seventeen miles and halted. Laid here in the woods 
until the 27th. Went to several houses and had a good 
time with ladies and eatables up to the 29th. 

March 29 — Here still, but positively don't know 
where we are. 

March 30 — Left this morning at 5 o'clock, marched 
fifteen miles. Waded clay-bottom swamps three- 
quarters of a mile long. This is in Pitt County, North 
Carolina. We then camped in the woods and made 
fires to dry ourselves with. 

March 31 — Left at 7 this morning, marched six 
miles, waded several creeks, and arrived at Swift 
Creek at 11. This is a small village. We camp here 
for the night. 

April 1 — Left here on the Little Washington dirt 
road at 7 this morning. Marched seventeen miles and 
halted three miles from Washington. This is a Yan- 
kee post. Heard firing all day, and we are ordered to 
keep our cartridge boxes on us and our guns by our 
sides, as we may move any moment. 

April 2 — Our regiment was sent on picket this 

morning at daylight — one mile from camp and two 

miles from the enemy. Companies B and G are on the 

left, A and D on the right, F and I in the center. We 


Confederate Soldier 

are within hailing distance of the Yankee line of pick- 
ets. There is not much firing. Tom Tiotter and I 
are on the color guard. We have nothing to do if we 
don't want to, except stay with the colors. So this 
evening at 4 o'clock we went as near the Yankees as 
we dared, to see the town of Washington. Saw the 
place, their breastworks and their camps very plainly. 
We then returned and slept on our arms all night — 
that is, we tried. to sleep, but could not for the infer- 
nal noise from the owls that are in the swamps around 

April 3 — Little Washington is on Tar River, and 
as one of the Yankee gunboats was trying to get in, 
one of our cannon gave them a ball, which caused 
heavy firing all day, and, in fact, the shells came very 
close to our flag, which made us dodge pretty smart. 
We have Washington besieged. At 8 o'clock to-night 
Colonel Owens called for volunteers to go as near the 
Yankees as they could, to see what they were doing. 
Tom Tiotter and myself went. We got to within two 
hundred yards of Washington, when we were com- 
pelled to halt, as we were near the bridge, where we 
could hear the Yankee sentinels walking their beats 
very plainly — so we returned to camp and reported. 

April 4 — Firing at intervals all day. The reserve 
was sent to the river to support our artillery. The 
colors went with them. It is raining hard. We laid 
in line two and a half hours in an old field. It is very 
cold. The Yankees are firing all the time. Then 
the 43d Regiment came and relieved us. Katz came 
[ 21 ] 

Diary of a Tar Heel 

in to-day and reported Henry Wortheim dead — he 
died Monday, March 30. 

April 5 — Everything- is quiet on our line to-day. 

April 6 — A little firing to-day. Went to the river 
to throw up breastworks. Worked all night. We put 
up one piece of cannon right on the river bank, but 
had to work all night in the swamp to do so. Wet: 
carried sandbags for breastworks to protect the artil- 

April 7 — To-day the firing was very heavy. We 
hit the Yankee gunboat again to-day, and made the 
dust fly out of their breastworks. 

April 8 — This morning Tom Tiotter, Katz and my- 
self went with Captain White to meet three Yankees 
with a flag of truce ; but they would not come half 
way, so Colonel Owens ordered us back. We then — 
we three — went to our siege-gun and saw the town 
very plainly. They fired at us while we were there. 
The fire was returned, and we could see the Yankees 

April 9 — We were relieved this morning by the 32d 
Regiment, and marched to Bellevue, where the balance 
of our brigade is. At 11 o'clock to-night we were or- 
dered to march. We went fifteen miles. There was 
a fight there to-day. Marched all night without rest- 

April 10 — Got to our line at 6 this morning. The 
Yankees had fallen back. They had nineteen regi- 
ments and twenty-one pieces of artillery. They left: 

Confederate Soldier 

in a hurry. One of their colonels was killed and I 
don't know how many men. We left Blount Creek 
Bridge at 4 this evening, marched nine miles on our 
way back to Bellevue. We met the Bethel regiment, 
and I met several friends of my old company. 

April 13 — Up to date they are firing at Fort Hill 
and Washington all the time. 

April 14 — Nothing. 

April 15 — Raining very hard. We have a blanket 
spread over poles to keep us dry. We got orders to 
march this evening. Went five miles through mud 
and water, and it raining like fury. I shall long re- 
member this march, as well as a few others of my 
company. We fell in the mud several times, and were 
certainly beautiful objects to look at with our suits 
of mud, for we were completely covered with it. 

April 16 — At 7 this morning we resumed our 
march. Went two miles, halted a half hour, then 
turned about and went to our old camp, but again 
were ordered back at 2 P.M. to our picket posts, one 
mile from Washington. As we got there the Yan- 
kees gave us a good reception in shot, shell and mus- 
ketry, but all the damage they did was to rail fences 
and perhaps a few owls that are plentiful in the 
swamps. Our line is on the edge of the swamp. They 
shelled heavy all night, but no lives were lost on our 
side. At 8 P.M. our pickets fired on them, but they 
did not respond. We laid here until 2 at night, when 
we went to Bellevue under fire from the enemy. We 
stayed here the balance of the night. 

Diary of a Tar Heel 

April 17 — At daylight this morning our company 
was ordered to go on picket at Shingle Landing, five 
miles from Bellevue. I asked Colonel Morehead to 
let me go with them, but he refused, and said I should 
stay with the colors, but I went without his permis- 
sion. In a march of five miles we waded through 
three miles of swamp, knee-deep. We are in a devil 
of a position. The enemy can cut us off from our 
command easily, as we cannot return, except through 
the swamp, which of course would be very slow 
progress. At 4 this evening we were recalled, and 
met our regiment on the march and fell in. Colonel 
Morehead did not miss me from the colors. We 
marched seven miles and halted for the night. 

April 18 — Left at 9 this morning, and got to Green- 
ville at 5 o'clock — eleven miles. This is a fine coun- 
try, but hilly and hard marching. This is the end of 
the siege of Washington. We were there sixteen days, 
but could not draw the enemy out of their works. 

April 19 — Nothing to-day but rest, which we 
needed very much. 

April 20 — Went on picket this morning to the south 
side of the town, across the river, but did not go on 
picket. Our company and Company G supported two 
pieces of artillery. I was again refused permission 
by Morehead to go with my company, but I went all 
the same. 

April 21 — Nothing doing. 

April 22 — Ordered to our brigade at 12 M. 

Confederate Soldier 

April 23 — Raining hard all day and night. No 
shelter. We got as wet as drowned cats. 

April 24 — This morning I was detailed by Colonel 
Owens to go to Wilson, N. C, to get the baggage for 
our officers. Left at 3 A.M., got to Tarboro at 7 
P.M. This is a very pretty town. Stayed here until 
3 and took the cars to Rocky Mount. Got there at 
5, left at 7, and got to Wilson at 8 on the morning 
of the 25th. Got my baggage and left at 3 P.M. Ar- 
rived at Rocky Mount at 4. Saw some fun with a 
girl and an old woman. The young one had stole a 
petticoat from the old one, and was compelled to take 
it off and return it in the presence of at least fifty 
men. Left at 8, got to Tarboro at a quarter after 

April 26 — Left here this morning and took the 
same route that I came by. Our boat got to Green- 
ville at 10 A.M. My regiment in my absence has 
gone twelve miles across the river to a place called 
Pacatolus. I followed them in a buggy, and got there 
at 4 P.M. 

April 2y — Left here at 3 this morning. Got to 
Greenville at 6 A.M., stayed a quarter of an hour, 
and marched to the crossroads, nine miles from town; 
got there at 6 P.M. 

April 28 — Turned about this morning at 7, got to 
Greenville at 10, and went to our former camp. Then 
got orders to return to Pacatolus in the morning. 

April 29 — We left this morning. The regiment 

Diary of a Tar Heel 

was two miles on the road when we got orders to re- 
turn. But Tom Tiotter and myself marched ahead 
of the regiment, and had got four miles before we had 
found out that the regiment was not in our rear. 
When we got back we were laughed at for our smart- 

April 30 — Laid in camp and rested. 

May 1 — We left here this morning at thirty minutes 
after 4 for Kinston. Marched eleven miles without 

May 2 — Resumed our march at 6 A.M., and reached 
Kinston at 8 P.M. — twenty-four miles to-day. 

May 3 — We camped one mile from town. We left 
here on the 25th day of March, and returned May 2. 
Went through a campaign of twenty-seven days. In 
that time we had Washington besieged sixteen days. 
The balance of the time we were marching and coun- 
ter-marching in all kinds of weather, and very often 
without anything to eat. 

May 4 and 5 — Nothing. 

May 6 — Left here at 12 M. for Core Creek, marched 
nine miles and halted. Raining hard, and we got well 
soaked. The rain ran down our faces all night, so 
we did not have to wash our faces on the morning 
of the 7th. 

May 7 — Resumed our march at 8 A.M., got ten 
miles, and halted within one mile of the creek. We 
waded Gum Swamp, stayed there three hours, and 
turned about — marched nine miles to-night. This ex- 
pedition was to tear up the Newbern and Kinston Rail- 

Confederate Soldier 

road, and also bring some ladies and old men out of 
the Yankee lines, for they had been driven out of 
Newbern. There were about seventy in all. They 
were, of course, Southern people who would not take 
the oath of allegiance to the United States Govern- 
ment, and therefore were driven out of their homes. 

May 8— We left here at 8 A.M., to return to Kin- 
ston, and got there at 3 P.M. — ten miles — awful road. 
Waded through mud, water and sand the whole way. 
My feet are cut up pretty badly. 

May 9 and 10 — Resting. 

May 11 — We moved our camp to the north side 
of town. Then we were marched to an open field 
this afternoon, and drawn up in line to see two men 
shot for desertion. After they were shot, we marched 
"by them and saw one was hit six times and the other 
four. Their coffins were by their sides, right close 
to their graves, so that they could see it all. 

May 17 — Up to to-day nothing. But this morning 
at 4 we were ordered to cook up all our rations, and 
be ready to march in one hour. We left Kinston by 
rail at 12 M. Got to Goldsboro at 3, went through 
to Weldon, left here at 5 P.M., and got to Peters- 
burg, Va., on the morning of the 18th; left there at 
6 P.M. Katz and myself went uptown — ate two sup- 
pers. Had a very good time while in town. We 
camped all night on Dunn's Hill. 

May 19 — Left here at 5 this morning, got to Rich- 
mond at 8, and are stationed at Camp Lee. We will 
Tiave to march to Fredericksburg. Our brigade is 
[ 27 ] 

Diary of a Tar Heel 

transferred to the Army of Northern Virginia. Wil- 
liam Cochran, myself and several of our company ran 
the blockade to-night, went uptown to a theatre, and 
got back to camp at 2 o'clock. We had a fine time 
while uptown. 

May 21 — Left this morning, marched twenty-one 
miles, halted at 5.30. It is a very hilly country, warm 
and dusty. 

May 22 — Marched twenty miles to-day, and halted 
at 6 P.M. 

May 23 — Marched fifteen miles and halted. On our 
to-day's march we saw any amount of dead horses, 
which did not smell altogether like cologne. 

May 24 — Laid here all day, it being Sunday. 

May 25 — Resumed our march this morning at 6. 
Got six miles and halted. We pitched our camp here 
on a hill two miles from Fredericksburg. 

May 26 and 27 — Rested. I went to see my brother 
Morris, who belongs to Dowles' Brigade, 44th Geor- 
gia Regiment. Did not see him, as he was on picket. 

May 28 — Morris came to see me to-day. We are 
both in the same division and corps. Our corps is 
commanded by General Ewell. 

May 29 — Had a general review to-day. General 
Rodes is our division commander. He and General 
Lee reviewed us. I see a great change in the appear- 
ance of General Lee. He looks so much older than 
when 'I saw him at Yorktown. Then his hair was 
black. Now he is a gray-headed old man. We have 
five brigades in our division. The commander of 

Confederate Soldier 

my brigade is General Daniels, of North Carolina. 
One brigade of Georgians is commanded by General 
Dowles. Iverson, of North Carolina, has another bri- 
gade ; also General Ramseur, of North Carolina, has 
a brigade ; and General Battle, of Alabama, has a 
brigade. Our corps is composed of three divisions, 
ours by General Rodes, one by General Early, and the 
other by Gen. A. Johnson. 

May 30 — We see the Yankees in balloons every day, 
reconnoitering our lines. 

June 1 and 2 — Nothing new. 

June 3 — Saw my brother Morris several times. 

June 4 — Got orders to cook three days' rations im- 
mediately. We left our camp at 3 this morning, 
marched fourteen miles and halted. We march one 
hour and rest ten minutes. 

June 5 — Marched until 4 o'clock this evening — 
twenty miles to-day. 

June 6 — Marched five miles and halted for the day. 

June 7 — Left at 5 A.M., got to Culpepper Court 
House 3 P.M., and marched four miles on the east 
side of town. Twenty miles to-day. We waded Rapi- 
dan River, which is forty yards wide, two feet deep 
and very swift. 

June 8 — Stayed here all day. 

June 9 — We were ordered to Beverly Ford, to sup- 
port Gen. Jeb Stewart, who is engaging the Yan- 
kees, and they are having a very hard cavalry fight. 
Got here in a roundabout way, and formed in line of 

Diary of a Tar Heel 

battle, with two lines of skirmishers in front. When 
we got to the Army of Northern Virginia we were told 
that each company must furnish one skirmisher out of 
every six men, and there was a call for volunteers for 
that service. So I left the colors and went as a skir- 
misher, whose duty it is in time of battle to go in front 
of the line and reconnoitre and engage the enemy 
until a general engagement, then we fall in line with 
balance of the army. As soon as the enemy saw that 
the cavalry were reinforced by infantry, they fell 
back. This was altogether a cavalry fight. We took 
quite a number of prisoners, and camped two miles 
from the battlefield. We marched twelve miles to- 

June 10 — Left here at 2 P.M., marched until 8 
o'clock to-night — twelve miles. 

June 11 — Resumed our march at 5 A.M., passed 
over three creeks that formed the Rappahannock 
River, passed through a town called Flint Hill, and 
camped one mile on the north side of the town. 
Marched sixteen miles to-day. 

June 12 — Left at 5 A.M., marched over part of 
the Blue Ridge, and crossed the head of the Rap- 
pahannock River- — eighteen miles to-day. We marched 
through Front Royal, where the ladies treated us 
very good. Camped one mile north side of town, and 
waded the Shaninoar, both prongs. 

June 13 — Marched to Berry ville, a Yankee post. 
Heard firing before we got there. We took the left 

Confederate Soldier 

flank a half mile this side of town, and marched to 
the Winchester Turnpike. We then formed in line 
of battle with sharpshooters in front. We gave the 
Rebel yell and charged. But when we got to their 
breastworks the birds had flown. They did not take 
their nests with them. Their camp, with all their 
cooking utensils, quartermaster and commissary 
stores, were all left in our hands. They were evi- 
dently cooking a meal, for plenty of pots full of eat- 
ables were still on the fire when we got into their 
camp. We ate up all we could, and filled our haver- 
sacks and pushed on four miles further, and halted 
for the night. It is raining very hard, and there is, 
of course, no shelter for us. 

June 14 — Left at 7 A.M., passed through Smithfield 
and Bunker Hill. The Yankees are still retreating in 
our front, on their way to Martinsburg, our own 
destination. We got there about 9 o'clock at night 
and drove them through the town, and, in fact, we 
felt like driving the devil out of his stronghold, as 
this was a very warm day. We had to march in 
quick time all day, a distance of twenty-five miles. 
Therefore we were not in the best of humor. This 
is a good sized town. 

June 15 — Left here at 11 A.M., and got to the Poto- 
mac river at dusk, a distance of twelve miles. We 
have as yet been very fortunate. Have driven the 
enemy from the Rapidan to the Potomac, captured 
prisoners, arms, camps, quartermaster and commis- 
sary stores, and the Yankees were any moment as 
[ 31 ] 

Diary of a Tar Heel 

strong in numbers as we, with the advantage of 
having breastworks to fight behind. Still they always 
ran at our appearance. 

June 1 6 — Resting to-day. 

June 17 — We crossed the Potomac River to-day at 
1 P.M., and camped in Williamsport, Maryland, on 
the banks of the Potomac. Two miles to-day. The 
river is knee-deep. 

June 18 — The people are mixed in their sympathies, 
some Confederates and some Yankees. 

June 19 — Left at 8 A.M., and seven miles took us to 
Hagerstown, Md. Here the men greeted us very 
shabby, but the ladies quite the reverse. This town 
has 5,000 inhabitants, and is a very pretty town. We 
camped on the Antietam. 

June 20 and 21 — Raining hard. 

June 22 — Left this morning at 8 o'clock, got to 
Middleburg, Pa., at 11, passed through it, and got to 
Green Castle at half past one. Eleven miles to-day. 
The people seemed downhearted, and showed their ha- 
tred to us by their glum looks and silence, and I am 
willing to swear that no prayers will be offered in 
this town for us poor, ragged rebels. 

June 23 — Here all day. Tom Tiotter and myself 
went out to buy something to eat, but when we came 
to a house, they would close their doors in our faces, 
or let us knock and not open. We got the ear of 
one or two ladies, and after proving to them that we 
were not wild animals nor thieves, they gave us what 
we wanted, but would not take pay for anything. 

Confederate Soldier 

June 24 — Left here this morning, got to Chambers- 
burg at 12 M. Went three miles on the north side of 
town on picket — 14 miles to-day. We passed through 
Marion, a small village. Chambersburg is a very fine 
place, 10,000 inhabitants, but nary a smile greeted us 
as we marched through town. There are a plenty 
of men here — a pity they are not rebels, and in our 
ranks. This city is in Franklin County, Cumberland 
Valley. We were woke up in the middle of the night 
and marched off; waded a river which was so cold 
that it woke us up. Passed through Greenville to-day 
at dawn. This town has, I should judge, about 
5,000 inhabitants. Nine miles to-day. 

June 25 — Marched on, passed through Leesburg, 
Canada, Hockinsville, and Centerville, all small vil- 
lages. We got to Carlisle, Pa., at sundown. Marched 
21 miles to-day. This city is certainly a beautiful 
place. It has 8,000 inhabitants, and we were treated 
very good by the ladies. They thought we would 
do as their soldiers do, burn every place we passed 
through, but when we told them the strict orders of 
General Lee they were rejoiced. Our regiment was 
provost guard in the city, but were relieved by the 
2 1 st Georgia Regiment, and we went to camp at the 
U. S. barracks. So far we have lived very good in the 
enemy's country. We stayed here until the 30th, 
when we took the Baltimore pike road, crossed South 
Mountain at Holly Gap, passed through Papertown 
and Petersburg. We then left the Pike and took the 
Gettysburg road — 17 miles to-day. This has been a 

Diary of a Tar Heel 

hard day for us, as we were the rear guard of the 
division, and it was very hot, close and very dusty, 
and a terrible job to keep the stragglers up. 

July i — We left camp at 6 A.M., passed through 
Heidelsburg and Middleton. At the latter place we 
heard firing in the direction of Gettysburg. We were 
pushed forward after letting the wagon trains get in 
our rear. We got to Gettysburg at i P.M., 15 miles. 
We were drawn up in line of battle about one mile 
south of town, and a little to the left of the Lutheran 
Seminary. We then advanced to the enemy's line of 
battle in double quick time. We had not gotten more 
than 50 paces when Norman of our company fell dead 
by my side. Katz was going to pick him up. I 
stopped him,. as it is strictly forbidden for anyone to 
help take the dead or wounded off the field except the 
ambulance corps. We then crossed over a rail fence, 
where our Lieutenant McMatthews and Lieutenant 
Alexander were both wounded. That left us with a 
captain and one lieutenant. After this we got into 
battle in earnest, and lost in our company very heavily, 
both killed and wounded. This fight lasted four hours 
and a half, when at last we drove them clear out of 
town, and took at least 3,000 prisoners. They also lost 
very heavily in killed and wounded, which all fell into 
our hands. After the fight our company was ordered 
to pick up all straggling Yankees in town, and bring 
them together to be brought to the rear as prisoners. 
One fellow I took up could not speak one word of 
English, and the first thing he asked me in German 

Confederate Soldier 

was "Will I get my pay in prison?" After we had 
them all put up in a pen we went to our regiment and 
rested. Major Iredell, of our regiment, came to me 
and shook my hand, and also complimented me for 
action in the fight. At dusk I was about going to 
hunt up my brother Morris, when he came to me. 
Thank God, we are both safe as yet. We laid all night 
among the dead Yankees, but they did not disturb 
our peaceful slumbers. 

July 2 — Our division was in reserve until dark, but 
our regiment was supporting a battery all day. We 
lost several killed and wounded, although we had no 
chance to fire — only lay by a battery of artillery and 
be shot at. The caisson of the battery we were sup- 
porting was blown up and we got a big good sprin- 
kling of the wood from it. Just at dark we were sent 
to the front under terrible cannonading. Still, it was 
certainly a beautiful sight. It being dark, we could 
see the cannon vomit forth fire. Our company had 
to cross a rail fence. It gave way and several of our 
boys were hurt by others walking over them. We 
laid down here a short time, in fact no longer than 10 
minutes, when I positively fell asleep. The cannon- 
ading did not disturb me. One of the boys shook me 
and told me Katz was wounded by a piece of a shell 
striking him on the side, and he was sent to the rear. 
We went on to the Baltimore Turnpike until 3 in the 
morning of the 3d. 

July 3 — When under a very heavy fire, we were 
ordered on Culps Hill, to the support of Gen. A. 

Diary of a Tar Heel 

Johnson. Here we stayed all day — no, here, I may 
say, we melted away. We were on the brow of one 
hill, the enemy on the brow of another. We charged 
on them several times, but of course, running down 
our hill, and then to get to them was impossible, and 
every time we attempted it we came back leaving some 
of our comrades behind. Here our Lieutenant Belt 
lost his arm. We have now in our company a captain. 
All of our lieutenants are wounded. We fought here 
until 7 P.M., when what was left of us was withdrawn 
and taken to the first day's battlefield. At the com- 
mencement of this fight our Brigade was the strongest 
in our division, but -she is not now. We lost the most 
men, for we were in the fight all the time, and I have 
it from Colonel Owens that our regiment lost the most 
in the Brigade. I know that our company went in 
the fight with 60 men. When we left Culps Hill there 
were 16 of us that answered to the roll call. The 
balance were all killed and wounded. There were 12 
sharpshooters in our company and now John Cochran 
and myself are the only ones that are left. This day 
none will forget, that participated in the fight. It was 
truly awful how fast, how very fast, did our poor 
boys fall by our sides — almost as fast as the leaves 
that fell as cannon and musket balls hit them, as they 
flew on their deadly errand. You could see one with 
his head shot off, others cut in two, then one with 
his brain oozing out, one with his leg off, others shot 
through the heart. Then you would hear some poor 
friend or foe crying for water, or for "God's sake" 


Confederate Soldier 

to kill him. You would see some of your comrades, 
shot through the leg, lying between the lines, asking 
his friends to take him out, but no one could get to 
his relief, and you would have to leave him there, 
perhaps to die, or, at best, to become a prisoner. Our 
brigade was the only one that was sent to Culps Hill 
to support General Johnson. In our rapid firing to- ' 
day my gun became so hot that the ramrod would 
not come out, so I shot it at the Yankees, and picked 
up a gun from the ground, a gun that some poor 
comrade dropped after being shot. I wonder if it hit 
a Yankee; if so, I pity him. Our regiment was in a 
very exposed position at one time to-day, and our 
General Daniels ordered a courier of his to bring us 
from the hill. He was killed before he got to us. 
The General sent another. He was also killed before 
he reached us. Then General Daniels would not order 
any one, but called for volunteers. Capt. Ed. Stitt, 
of Charlotte, one of his aides, responded, and he took 
us out of the exposed position. 

July 4 — We laid on the battlefield of the first day, 
this the fourth day of July. No fighting to-day, but 
we are burying the dead. They have been lying on 
the field in the sun since the first day's fight; it be- 
ing dusty and hot, the dead smell terribly. The funny 
part of it is, the Yankees have all turned black. Sev- 
eral of our company, wounded, have died. Katz is 
getting along all right. The battle is over, and al- 
though we did not succeed in pushing the enemy out 
of their strong position, I am sure thev have not any- 

Diary of a Tar Heel 

thing to boast about. They have lost at least as many 
in killed and wounded as we have. We have taken 
more prisoners from them than they have from us. 
If that is not the case, why did they lay still all to- 
day and see our army going to the rear? An army 
that has gained a great victory follows it up while 
its enemy is badly crippled ; but Meade, their com- 
mander, knows he has had as much as he gave, at 
least, if not more. As yet I have not heard a word 
from my brother Morris since the first day's fight. 

July 5 — Left this morning at 5 o'clock. Only 
marched ten miles to-day. The enemy being in our 
rear, and skirmishing very strong. 

July 6 — Our company was ordered out as skirmish- 
ers to-day, as our regular skirmish corps was broken 
up during the fight. We were the rear of the army, 
and therefore had a very hard job before us. Fight- 
ing all day in falling back we certainly had fun. We 
were close enough to the enemy to hear their com- 
mands. We would hold them in check and give them 
a few rounds, then fall back again. They would 
then advance until we would make a stand, fight 
again, and so it was until we reached Fairfield, six 
miles from Gettysburg. I don't think there were 
many lost on either side in this skirmish. We crossed 
South Mountain at Monteray Gap. When we came to 
the above town I pressed into service a citizen's coat, 
in this way: We were ordered to rest, and, as usual, 
we would sit on fences and lay about the road. Some 
of the boys jumped on an old hog pen. It broke 

Confederate Soldier 

through. They fell in, and, lo and behold, there were 
boxes of clothing, dresses, shawls, blankets, and, in 
fact, everything in the line of wearing apparel. I, be- 
ing a little fellow, crawled through some of the boys' 
legs and captured the coat. If the fool citizen would 
have left his things in his house they would have 
been safe, but to put it in our way was too much for 
us to leave behind. We also passed through Water- 
boro, and Waynesboro, Pa., where the Maryland line 
commences. We then passed through Latisburg, and 
halted in Hagerstown, Md v on the evening of the 
7th. We marched yesterday and all night up to 11 
o'clock — twenty-four miles. 

July 8 — We are resting, and, goodness knows, we 
need it very much. I sold my coat for twenty dollars 
and a gray jacket. We lost in the last fight in our 
company eleven killed and twenty-six wounded ; three 
of the latter will not live, and nine of our number be- 
came prisoners, besides the wounded. Our three lieu- 
tenants are all wounded and prisoners. Katz is also 
a prisoner. Nothing further up to the 10th. 

July 10 — Moved four and a half miles on the other 
side of town. We have fortified ourselves here. 

July 11 — Orders read out to-day from our father, 
R. E. Lee, that we would fight the enemy once more 
on their own soil, as they were now in our front. That 
order got to them, and fulfilled its mission, as we 
were then on our way to the Potomac. They still 
thinking we could not cross the river, because the 
river was very high from the recent rains, and we 

Diary of a Tar Heel 

had but one pontoon bridge. At 10 in the night we 
formed in line of battle, got to our position, when 
our regiment was ordered to support a battery. Laid 
on our arms all night. 

July 12 — Went back to our brigade this morning. 
Skirmishing very heavy on the left and center. 

July 13 — News came to us to-day that Vicksburg^ 
had fallen on the 4th. Heavy skirmishing, fighting 
all day. Our brigade again acted as the rear of our 
corps, our regiment being its rear. We started our 
retreat at dark and marched to Williamsport, six 
miles, through mud and slush ankle-deep, and raining 
very hard. We marched one mile to the right of and 
crossed the Potomac at midnight, after wading; 
through the canal, which we destroyed. The river 
was up to my chin, and very swift. We crossed in 
fours, for protection, as otherwise we could not have 
crossed. Our cartridge boxes we carried around our 
necks to keep the powder dry. On the south bank 
tar was poured so that we would not slip back in the- 
river, as the mud was very slick. J. Engle, of our 
company, was stuck in until some of the boys pulled 
him out. We went six miles further, and I honestly 
believe more of us were asleep on our night's march 
than awake. But, still, all kept up, for the rear was 
prison. We then halted, made fire to dry ourselves, 
just as day was breaking on the morning of the 14th. 

July 14 — The roads are so bad that it is hard work 
to trudge along. I stuck in the mud several times, 
and lost one shoe in a mud hole, but of course took 

Confederate Soldier 

It out again. One consolation we have got, it is rain- 
ing so hard that the mud is washed off our clothing, 
therefore they were not soiled too bad. But the devil 
of it is there is no blacking to shine our shoes with. 
Marched sixteen miles and halted. We are now, thank 
God, on Confederate soil, but oh, how many of our 
dear comrades have we left behind. We can never 
forget this campaign. We had hard marching, hard 
righting, suffered hunger and privation, but our gen- 
eral officers were always with us, to help the weary 
soldier carry his gun, or let him ride. In a fight 
they were with us to encourage. Many a general have 
I seen walk and a poor sick private riding his horse, 
and our father, Lee, was scarcely ever out of sight 
when there was danger. We could not feel gloomy 
when we saw his old gray head uncovered as he 
would pass us on the march, or be with us in a fight. 
I care not how weary or hungry we were, when we 
saw him we gave that Rebel yell, and hunger and 
wounds would be forgotten. 

July 15 — We marched five miles to-day, and were 
compelled to halt, as our wagon trains had to get in 
our front. I and two of our mess killed three tur- 
keys, took them with us to one mile from Martins- 
burg, Va., where we camped, and the bones of those 
turkeys were left behind. 

July 16 — Left this morning at 7; marched to 
Darkesville, eight miles. 

July 17 — Raining very hard to-day, and we are rest- 


Diary of a Tar Heel 

July 20 — Went on picket to-day, stayed there one 

hour, and was ordered back. Got to camp, and found 

'our brigade gone. We marched to Martinsburg, 

halted at 10 at night, two miles from town — ten miles 


July 21 — Went through town at 5 this morning, to 
the Baltimore and Ohio Railroad, with Johnson's di- 
vision and part of Hampton's Legion, to tear up the 
railroad. We destroyed six miles of it and returned 
to our camp at Darkesville — fifteen miles to-day. 

July 22 — Left this morning at 5, marched through 
Winchester three miles, and halted. 

July 23 — Left at 5 this morning, went through 
Front Royal — seventeen miles to-day. Waded the 
south and north prongs of the Shenandoah River. We 
then took the road to Mananas Gap, marched three 
miles, when we met the enemy and had brisk firing 
until dark. Their line is very strong. They advanced 
in two lines in very fine order. When they got within 
range of our guns we opened on them, and they scat- 
tered like bluebirds. We had a beautiful view of this 
fight, as we are on the mountain. Neither of the 
armies can move without being seen by the other. 
Our corps of sharpshooters has been formed again 
since a few days ago. We were sent to the support 
of the other corps. We were within twenty yards of 
the enemy's line until midnight, when we fell back 
in good order. 

July 24 — Marched two miles up Chester Gap, when 
we were about faced and marched through Front 

Confederate Soldier 

Royal again. We here took the Strasburg road at 
daylight. We resumed our march, and halted at 3 
in the evening. We have been on a forced march 
three days and nights, waded rivers, fought skir- 
mishes, and marched in that time forty-five miles. We 
are camped in an apple orchard in a village called 

July 25 — Left this morning at 7 o'clock, halted at 3 
in the afternoon — sixteen miles. 

July 26 — Rested to-day. William Eagle and myself 
went up the Blue Ridge to gather berries, and were 
lost in the woods for one hour. 

July 27 — Left this morning at 5, crossed the Blue 
Ridge at Thornton Gap. We camped one mile from 
Sparrowsville. Marched thirteen miles to-day. 

July 28 — Left at 6 this morning, marched ten miles 
and halted on the mountain. 

July 29 — Left at 7, marched until 3, camped one 
mile from Madison Court House. Marched- ten miles 

July 30 — Still in camp. Hugh Sample and myself 
were out on a forage and milked a cow in his hat, the 
only thing we had. 

July 31 — We left here to-night, marched seven 
miles, and halted. 

August 1 — Resumed our march at 4 this morning, 
and got to Orange Court House, fourteen miles. It 
is a very hot day, and there were several men fell 
dead on the road from sunstroke. We rested here un- 
til the 4th. 


Diary of a Tar Heel 

August 4 — Left our camp, marched three miles, one 
mile on the south side of town. 

August ii — Nothing up to to-day. This, I sup- 
pose, is to be our regular camp, as we have com- 
menced to drill again. 

August 12 — We had a very severe storm to-day, 
which killed two men and hurt several of our bri- 
gade. It tore up trees and played smash in general. 

August 23 — They have commenced to give fur- 
loughs, one to every two companies. 

August 24 — Was on guard this morning, but Ser- 
geant Hugh Reid sent for me, and detailed me, with 
some men out of every regiment in our brigade, to 
hunt deserters. Si Wolf and myself, out of our com- 
pany. We left camp at 3 this evening, marched two 
miles up the railroad, and took the cars to Gordons- 
ville. Got there at 4. It is a small place, but one of 
importance, as all our supplies for the army from 
Richmond come from this station. 

August 25 — Took the cars at 5 A.M. and got to 
Keswick, a depot on the Stanton road. We left here 
after staying one hour, and took our posts in the 
woods. As we are about twenty men, with one lieu- 
tenant in command, we made no camp, but stayed 
about here and reported every time there was any 
news about deserters. Wolf and myself went out in 
the country to houses that we were told harbored de- 
serters. We passed ourselves off as such, and were 
well received, and got some valuable information. 
They told us that the deserters were in the woods. 

Confederate Soldier 

We then returned to our companions, and got well 
soaked, as it was raining very hard. Stayed in a barn 
all night. 

August 26 — We stayed in the woods all day, but at 
night went out scouting for deserters, but did not 
find any. 

August 27 — Returned at 7 this morning, went out 
again at dark, went through four houses of bad re- 
pute, but found not one deserter. Went twelve miles 
this night. 

August 28 — We moved this evening, and I stayed 
in a gentleman's house all night with Wolf. 

August 29 — Returned to our companions this morn- 
ing at 10 o'clock. 

August 30 — Left at 5 in the morning. We hunted 
through the cliffs for several hours and caught one 
deserter. Several of our men and myself dined in a 
widow lady's house. There were quite a number of 
ladies there, and we had a very pleasant time. Then 
we went to Mr. Bell's and had supper there. From 
there we went to Mr. Wheeler's and stayed all night. 

August 31 — Went to Mr. Watkin's, took dinner 
there, and stayed all day. Had a very pleasant time 
with his daughter, Miss Annie. 

September 1 — To-day we went on a general hunt in 
full force. We went into a house where we sus- 
pected there was a deserter. We hunted through all 
the out-houses, then went to the house, and the lady 
stronglv denied there being any one there, but would 
[ 45 ] 

Diary of a Tar Heel 

not give us permission to look. We then searched the 
house; but found no one. I then proposed that we go 
in the loft. She objected again. But of course we 
were determined. It was pitch-dark in the loft. We 
called in, but no answer came. I then proposed, in a 
loud voice, so that if any one was there they could 
hear me, that we fix bayonets and stick around and 
satisfy ourselves that no one was there. Still no an- 
swer. I then got in the loft, took my gun and com- 
menced sticking around. At last an answer came 
from the far corner that he would surrender. The 
way I got into the loft was, I being a little fellow, 
and Si Wolf a tall man, they put me on his shoulder, 
and in that way I crawled in. We then left for 
camp, passed a church, and was in time to see a wed- 
ding. We drilled for the ladies, and had a good time. 

September 2 — On a hunt to-day several of my com- 
rades with myself came to a house, and the first thing 
we heard was, "Is there a Jew in your detachment 
that caught a deserter yesterday?" They would like 
to see him, etc. At last one of the boys told them 
that I was the Jew. After that I had a very good 
time there, and in fact wherever I went I was re- 
ceived very kindly, and was very sorry to see on the 
4th that orders came for us to return to our brigade. 

September 4 — Marched to Keswick, and found that 
we would have to march to Gordonsville. Got there 
that night. Fifteen miles to-day. 

September 5 — Left here at 7, got to brigade at 10 
in the morning, and from the 24th of last month up 

Confederate Soldier 

to date I certainly have seen the best time since the 

September 6 — Our captain, Harvey White, returned 
to camp yesterday from a furlough. 

September 8 — We are getting ready for a corps 
review for to-morrow. 

September 9 — To-day we had a review. Present : 
General Lee, General Ewell, General Early, General 
Johnson and General Rodes, of our corps, and Gen- 
eral Hill, Gen. J. E. B. Stewart, and smaller fry of 
our army. It was certainly a grand scene. Nothing 
more up to the 14th. 

September 14 — Left camp this morning at 7, 
marched twelve miles and halted. Hear firing in front 
on the Rapidan, at Summerville Ford. Here all 

September 15 — Still some firing in front. We are 
in reserve. I went to see the fight. I saw the enemy 
very plainly, and thus I spent my New Year's Day. 

September 16 — To-day there was a man shot for de- 
sertion. Eight balls passed through him. The way 
this is conducted is : the brigade that he belongs to, 
or sometimes even the division, is drawn up in full 
sight of the doomed man. He is tied to a stake in 
front of his grave, which is already dug, and his 
coffin at his side. There is a squad of twelve men 
and one officer detailed to do the shooting. Eleven 
of the guns are loaded. The guns are given to them 
by the officer, so that no man knows which gun is 
loaded. The order is then given to fire. Thus ends 

Diary of a Tar Heel 

the deserter's life. The brigade, or division, then 
marches around him, so that every man can see bis, 
the deserter's, end. 

September 17 — Very little firing - to-day. 

September 18 — Raining hard all day, and no tents. 
Left camp at 2 in the afternoon, marched six miles, 
halted at the river, and our regiment went on picket. 
It is still raining very hard, and we are as wet as 
drowned cats, and cold, too, for we cannot make a 
fire in front of the enemy. If we did they would 
have a good mark to shoot at. 

September 19 — We are at Moulton's Ford. 

September 20 — In speaking distance of the Yan- 

September 21 — Our regiment was relieved to-day 
by the 3d Alabama, of Battle's Brigade. 

September 22 — I spoke and exchanged papers with 
a Yankee of the 7th Ohio Regiment. 

September 23 — Day of Atonement to-day. Noth- 
ing more up to the 26th. 

September 26 — We have built ourselves cabins in 
our camps. This evening we went on picket. 

September 27 — The Yankees are very active to- 
day. Something is up. 

September 28 — Our regiment is on picket ; will be 
relieved to-morrow. 

September 29 — All quiet to-day. Brother Morris 
returned from Richmond yesterday, where he has been 
for ten days on a furlough. Before our Jewish New 

Confederate Soldier 

Year there was an order read out from General Lee j 
granting a furlough to each Israelite to go to Rich- j 
mond for the holidays if he so desired. I did not care 
to go. 

September 30 — We are shooting at the Yankees 
to-day for fun, as they are trying to steal sheep from 
the houses that are between our lines. 

October 1 — Went on picket at 4 this afternoon, and 
was roused up in the night to intercept a spy who is 
in our lines, and is expecting to cross, but we did not 
see him, for it was so dark we could see nothing. 

October 2 — Relieved to-day. Very wet and dis- 
agreeable weather. Nothing new up to the gth. 

October 9 — Left camp at 4 this evening and halted 
on the morning of the 10th at 1 o'clock, when we 
caught up with our brigade. Marched twelve miles 
on very muddy road, and fell into several holes. We 
left again very early this morning and marched 
twenty miles. We waded the Rapidan to-day at Lib- 
erty Mills. 

October 11 — We forded Roberson River, and 
marched up and down hollows without singing or 
making any noise, so that the enemy could not see or 
hear us. We heard firing on our left. We are eight 
miles from Culpepper Court House. 

October 12 — Started at daylight, marched twenty- 
five miles, waded the Hazel River at 10 this morning. 
Had to take off our shoes and pants, according to or- 
ders. It was very cold. We got within a quarter 
of a mile of Jefferson town, when the fight com- 

Diary of a Tar Heel 

menced. We drove the Yankees through town double 
quick. We halted one mile on the other side of the 
town, then formed in line of battle once more and 
went forward. We drove the enemy over the Rappa- 
hannock and through Warrington Springs ; took 300 
prisoners and halted at 9 in the night. 

October 13 — Left here at daylight, marched 
through Warrington, a very handsome place, went 
two miles further and camped for the night — seven 

October 14 — My corps of sharpshooters marched 
in front of the line. Left camp at 4 this morning, 
and at daylight, as General Ewell and staff rode up 
to us, there was a volley shot at us. We immediately 
deployed and after the enemy. We fought on a run 
for six hours, all the time the enemy falling back. 
They at one time raised a white flag and surrendered. 
We then stopped firing, and as we got within one hun- 
dred feet they opened on us again, for they saw we 
were only a line of sharpshooters. We then resumed 
firing at them. I captured a mail-bag in the fight, 
and in several letters I found some money. We 
halted, and the enemy kept on running like wild 
ducks. This is the battle of Bristow Station. We 
took many prisoners. As we got through fighting we 
heard firing on our right. We marched to their sup- 
port, but when we got there the firing had ceased. 
Twenty-five miles to-day. We camped on Manassas 
Plain. Raining hard all night. 

October 15 — Here all day, and talking with our 


Confederate Soldier 

October 16 — Left this morning at 4, marched five 
miles, and halted on the Orange and Alexander Rail- 
road, tore it up one and a quarter miles, and camped. 

October 17 — Marched four miles to-day and tore 
and burned up the same amount of railroad. 

October 18 — Started at 4 this morning and marched 
ten miles toward Culpepper Court House. We tore 
up the railroad from Manassas to the Rappahannock 
River. The way we tear up railroads is this : we take 
the cross-ties and make a square of them as high as 
your head. We place the rails on the cross-ties, then 
set it afire and the rails bend double. 

October 19 — Left at 4 this morning, crossed the 
river on pontoon bridges. It commenced to hail and 
rain very hard, and kept it up for two hours. We got 
very wet. Halted at Cedar Run, marched ten miles, 
and stayed here until the 21st. 

October 21 — We were sent to Kelly's Ford on 

October 22 — Relieved to-day. It was bitter cold. 

October 23 — We commenced putting up winter 
quarters, and were hard at work up till the last of 
this month. 

November 1 — Moved into our shanties to-day. 
There are five of us in mine. They are ten feet 

November 3 — Went on picket on the Rappahannock 
at Norman's Ford, six miles from camp. 

November 6 — Were relieved to-day. 

November 7 — To-day, as several of us went to get 

Diary of a Tar Heel 

some straw near Kelly's Ford, we heard firing, and 
the long roll beat. Looking up we saw the Yankees 
^crossing the river. We double-quicked to camp and 
got there just in time to fall in with our regiment, to 
intercept the enemy, but they had already crossed the 
river before we got there. We manceuvered about 
until dark, when my corps of sharpshooters was or- 
dered out. We were within one hundred yards of the 
Yankees, and saw them around their fires very plainly. 
On the morning of the 8th we retreated in very good 
order. I certainly was glad of it, as we were in a 
very bad fix. We marched until sun-up and halted 
on Stone Mountain, passed through Stevensburg. 
Stayed here all night, and resumed our march and 
halted on the morning of the 9th. We then crossed 
the Rapidan at the Raccoon Ford, and are now 
camped at our old camp at Moulton Ford. We 
marched, since leaving Kelly's Ford, forty miles. The 
distance is only seventeen miles. We were certainly 
surprised for the first time since the war. We did not 
dream the enemy was on us before the firing com- 
menced. Our brigade was cut off from the army 
twice, but our General Daniels got us through safe. 
Nothing new up to the 26th. 

November 26 — When we had marched seven miles 
we heard cannonading. The enemy is trying to cross 
the river at Jacob's Ford, but our boys kept them 
back. We laid in breastworks of our own make until 
the 27th. 

November 27 — This morning we marched seven 

Confederate Soldier 

miles, halted a short time, and resumed our march. 
Got three miles further, and firing commenced in our 
front. We then counter-marched and formed in line 
of battle, in the edge of the woods. One corps of 
sharpshooters was sent out to find the enemy. Fought 
the enemy one-half hour and were forced back. My 
corps then went out as reinforcement. We fought 
then for four hours, and were called back to our 
command. I, at one time in this fight, was in a close 
place. Being in front, I did not hear the order to 
fall back, and being by myself was left a target for 
a dozen Yankees, but my Captain White saw what a 
fix I was in and sent a squad of our company to my 
relief, so I fell back with them. We then, that night, 
went to Mine Run and formed our line of battle 

November 28 — To-day the whole army is throwing 
up breastworks. The sharpshooters are out in front, 
my corps out to-day. We made ourselves small pits 
to lay in as a protection from the Yankee bullets. 
These pits are just about large enough to hold two 
or three men. Pinkney King, Sam Wilson and my- 
self are in one. We are shooting at the enemy all 
day. They are returning the compliment. Late this 
evening we saw some of them opposite our pits, try- 
ing to get into a house. We jumped out of our pits 
and fired at them several times, when poor King was 
shot and died in a few minutes. Another man was 
sent to relieve in his place, and we held our position. 
The other corps of sharpshooters fought all day. 

Diary of a Tar Heel 

November 29 — Ours again to-day, but not as hard 
as before, but heavy enough. The cannonading is 
'getting heavier. 

December 1 — The other corps is out to-day. The 
Yankees, as well as ourselves, are well fortified, and 
we are confronting one another. 

December 2 — This morning at 3 we moved to the 
right until daylight, when our corps was again sent 
to the front. We advanced toward the enemy's 
works. We moved, of course, very carefully, as we 
saw their breastworks, and in front of us two cannon. 
When we got in shooting range, the order was given 
to "Charge !" We did so with a rebel yell, and as we 
got upon their breastworks, lo and behold, there were 
no Yankees, and the cannons we saw were nothing 
but logs. We followed them to the river, but their 
whole army had crossed. We, of course, captured a 
great many of their sick and stragglers. 

December 3 — Marched back to our camp at Moul- 
ton's Ford, and our regiment was sent on picket at 
Mitchell's Ford, seven miles from camp. This has. 
been a very severe seven-days' campaign, as we fought 
mostly all the time. Cold, sleety, disagreeable 
weather, and we dare not make large fires, as that 
would be a sure target for the Yankees. Mine Run 
is a small stream on the Orange and Fredericksburg 
turnpike. Nothing more worth recording up to the 
8th, my birthday, and spent it as dull as could be. 
Have been on picket, and relieved on Dole's Georgia 
Brigade. Up to the 27th nothing doing. 

Confederate Soldier 

December 27 — We moved our camps from our 
picket posts seven miles from Orange Court House. 
On the turnpike from there to Fredericksburg, and 
commenced putting up winter quarters. On the 31st 
moved into them, and for the first time in a year or 
two we have with our rations some coffee, sugar and 
dried apples. 


The Year 1864 

January 8 — It has been snowing, and is very cold. 
Some of the boys have formed a dramatic company, 
and I went to see them play "Toodles." There were 
two men shot in our brigade for desertion to-day. 
Nothing of interest until nth. 

January n — Left our camp at sun-up, got five 
miles and halted in the woods. We have been detailed 
to run two sawmills, and we are now putting up win- 
ter quarters there. 

January 16 — Nothing more until to-day. W. R. 
Berryhill has got the smallpox. Quite a number of 
us were in the same quarters with him, but none of us 
caught the disease. I was detailed to work at the 
mills, and therefore I am learning a new trade. Live 
and learn. 

January 20 — Hard work until to-day, when we were 
sent out to lay a plank road. While at work General 
Lee and his daughter rode by us, and soon after a 
courier came from his headquarters and gave us some 
woolen socks and gloves — sent to us from his daugh- 
ter. Nothing more worth recording this month. 

Februarv 2 — While hard at work in the woods, 

Confederate Soldier 

"hauling stocks for the mill, my furlough came, for 
eighteen days. So I was relieved. On the 3d I left 
camp and got home on the morning of the 6th. It 
took me several days to get accustomed to living as a 
civilian, as I have been in camp for two years at a 
stretch. I had a very good time, and will always be 
grateful for the kindness shown me by every one 
while at home. 

February 23 — Reached camp to-day, and found that 
my regiment had marched once since I left. This was 
the first I missed since my regiment was formed. 
Nothing more this month. 

March 1 — Raining hard. Left camp at 9 this morn- 
ing, halted at dark nine miles from Madison Court 
House. Snowing to-night. We had a hard road to 
travel, and when we got to our destination the enemy 
had gone. 

March 2 — Started back to camp. The weather was 
clear and cold. Got there at 7 in the evening, and I 
stiff from walking. We marched eighteen miles to- 

March 3 — Left camp at 8 this morning to inter- 
cept General Kilpatrick, who is scouting in our lines. 
We formed in line of battle, had all the roads guarded, 
when we found out that he was already on his way 
to the peninsula, so we returned to camp. Twenty 
miles to-day. 

March 4 — I am as stiff as an old man this morn- 
ing from yesterday's march on the plank road. 
[ 57 ] 

Diary of a Tar Heel 

March 5 — We left the mills this morning - and re- 
turned to our brigade, a distance of five miles. Noth- 
ing more up to the 17th. 

March 17 — An order was read out at dress parade 
that all troops in the army would be held until the 
end of the war. This was nothing of importance to 
us, as we enlisted for that time. It is raining and 
snowing very hard, and almost every day. Our regi- 
ment is not in winter quarters, for we expect to move 
when the bad weather stops. We had a snowball 
fight — our regiment with the 43d North Carolina. 
Then our brigade with Battle's Brigade. It was lots 
of fun. Nothing more until the 26th. 

March 26 — We were visited to-day by our Gov- 
ernor, Zeb Vance, who made us a speech of two and 
a half hour's duration. With him on the platform 
was General Lee, General Ewell and several others. 

March 28 — We were reviewed to-day by our Gov- 
ernor. When I say reviewed, I mean all the North 
Carolina troops in our corps. After the review we 
went to Ramseur's Brigade, where he spoke again. 
So did Generals Early, Rodes and Stewart. That is 
all that is worth recording this month. 

April 1 — Left camp at 8 this morning to go on 
picket twelve miles from our camp. Our brigade 
went on picket at Raccoon Ford, and picketed up to 
Moulton's Ford. Raining hard to-day, also on the 
2d. The river is ten feet above common watermark. 

April 3 — As' I have not heard from my parents 
since the war. they living in New York, I thought I 

Confederate Soldier 

would send a personal advertisement to a New York 
paper to let them know that my brother and myself 
are well, and for them to send an answer through 
the Richmond paper. I gave this to a Yankee picket, 
who promised me he would send it to New York. 
Nothing more up to the 7th. 

April 7 — This is a day of fasting and prayer, set 
apart by President Davis. 

April 9 — Were relieved to-day by Doles' Georgia 
Brigade. Got to camp at 1 in the evening, raining 
very hard all day. Nothing more up to the 14th. 

April 14 — I went to A. P. Hill's corps to visit my 
friend, Lieutenant Rusler, and returned to camp on 
the 15th. 

April 15 — Nothing more up to the 18th. 

April 18 — Our corps of sharpshooters went out to- 
day target practising. We shoot a distance of 500 
yards offhand. Some very good shooting was done. 

April 20 — I hit the bull's-eye to-day. We are prac- 
tising every day up to the 23d. 

April 23 — Went to Moulton's Ford, met Stone- 
wall Brigade on our way, and had some lively talk 
with them, all in fun, of course. Stayed on picket 
until 30th, then we were relieved at 1 1 in the morning, 
and reached camp at 2. 

May 1 — Rumors are flying that we will soon get 
hard fighting. Nothing more up to the 4th. 

May 4 — This morning we got orders to be ready at 
a moment's notice. Broke camp at noon, marched to 

Diary of a Tar Heel 

our old breastworks at Mine Run, seven miles from 
camp. Rested two hours, and moved forward toward 
the river three miles further and halted. 

May 5 — Moved this morning, feeling for the enemy, 
and came up to them at noon, five miles from the Run, 
in the Wilderness. It certainly is a wilderness ; it is 
almost impossible for a man to walk, as the woods are 
thick with an underbrush growth and all kinds of 
shrubbery, old logs, grapevines, and goodness knows 
what. My corps of sharpshooters was ordered to the 
front. We formed in line and advanced to the enemy. 
We fought them very hard for three hours, they fall- 
ing back all the time. Our sharpshooters' line got 
mixed up with Gordon's Brigade, and fought with 
them. In one charge we got to the most elevated 
place in the Wilderness. We looked back for our bri- 
gade, but saw it not. Just then a Yankee officer 
came up and we took him prisoner. Some of Gor- 
don's men took him to the rear. Six of our regiment, 
sharpshooters, myself included, went to the right to 
join our regiment, but were picked up by the Yankees 
and made prisoners. We were run back in their line 
on the double quick. When we got to their rear we 
found about 300 of our men were already prisoners. 
The Yankees lost very heavily in this fight, more than 
we did. Although we lost heavy enough, but, my 
Heavens ! what an army they have got. It seems to 
me that there is ten of them to one of us. It looks 
strange that we could deliver such fearful blows, 
when, in fact, if numbers counted, they should have 

Confederate Soldier 

killed us two years ago. In going to their rear we 
passed through four lines of battle and reinforce- 
ments still coming up, while we are satisfied with, or 
at least have no more than one line of battle. 

May 6 — Fighting commenced at daylight, and lasted 
all day. So did it last with their everlasting rein- 
forcements. If General Lee only had half their men r 
and those men were rebels, we would go to Wash- 
ington in two weeks. When he has fought such an 
army for four years it certainly shows we have the 
generals and the fighting-stock on our side, and they 
have the hirelings. Look at our army, and you will 
see them in rags and barefooted. But among the 
Yankees I see nothing but an abundance of every- 
thing. Still, they haven't whipped the rebels. Sev- 
eral of our boys came in as prisoners to-day, with 
them Engle of our company. They think I was killed, 
so does my brother, but as yet the bullet has not done 
its last work for your humble servant. 

May 7 — We are still penned up as prisoners in the 
rear of the army, close by General Grant's headquar- 
ters. A great many prisoners came in to-day. From 
some of them I heard that my brother was well. 

May 8 — We left this place at dark last night, but 
only got a distance of two miles, and it took us until 
9 in the morning of the 9th. 

May 9 — Started again this morning, and passed over 

the Chancellorsville battlefield. Marched twelve miles 

to-day. We passed a brigade of negro troops. They 

gave us a terrible cursing, and hollered "Fort Pil- 


Diary of a Tar Heel 

low" at us. I am only sorry that this brigade of ne- 
groes was not there, then they certainly would not 
curse us now. We halted at dark on the plank road 
seven miles from Fredericksburg. 

May 10 — Fighting to-day at Spottsylvania Court 
House. Prisoners still coming in, two more from my 

May ii — This morning about 800 more prisoners 
came in. Most of them were from my brigade, as 
well as from Dole's Georgians. I was surprised to 
see my brother with them. He was taken yesterday, 
but before he surrendered he sent two of the enemy 
to their long home with his bayonet. 

May 12 — Raining hard all day, and fighting all last 
night. About 2 o'clock this afternoon about 2,000 
prisoners came in, with them Major-General John- 
son and Brigadier-General Stewart. We have moved 
four miles nearer to Fredericksburg. I suppose they 
think we are too close to our own lines, and they 
are afraid we will be recaptured, as it was a few days 
ago. We heard our boys', or, as the Yankees call it, 
the Rebel yell. We prisoners also gave the Rebel 
yell. A few minutes after that they brought cannon 
to bear on us, and we were told to stop, or they 
would open on us. We stopped. 

May 13 — Left here this morning and passed 
through Fredericksburg. Crossed the Rappahannock 
on pontoon bridges, and got to Belle Plain on the 
Potomac at 3 o'clock — nineteen miles to-day. It 
rained all day, and it is very muddy. 

Confederate Soldier 

May 14 — We are still camped here. Have been 
prisoners since the 5th of this month, and have drawn 
three and a half days' rations. On that kind of a diet 
I am not getting very fat. We certainly would have 
suffered a great deal, but our Yankee guard gave us 
quite a lot of their own rations. 

May 15 — Still here. They are fighting very hard 
on the front. 

May 16 — Left this morning at 11 in a tugboat, and 
from here packed into the Steamer S. R. Spaulding. 
We are now on our way to a regular prison. We 
got there at 8 o'clock to-night, and found it to be 
Point Lookout, Md., fifty miles from Belle Plain. It 
is in St. Mary's County. We were drawn up in line, 
searched for valuables, and they taken from us, and 
marched to prison, one mile from the landing. There 
are sixteen men in each tent. 

May 17 — Saw Mack Sample, Will Stone and sev- 
eral of our company to-day that have been prisoners 
since the battle of Gettysburg. We get two meals a 

May 18 — We are divided in divisions and com- 
panies. There is a thousand in each division and one 
hundred in each company. A sergeant commands each 
company. We get light bread one day and crackers 
the other. 

May 19 — Saw Darnell, of my company, to-day. He 

was just from the front. He brings us very bad 

news. Our General Daniels was killed, which is cer- 

tainlv a great loss to us, for he was a good and brave 


Diary of a Tar Heel 

man, also our major of the 53d, Iredell, and my cap- 
tain, White, all killed. Colonel Owens, my colonel, 
was mortally wounded, and quite a number of my 
company were killed and wounded. He says there is 
only seven of our company left, and that our Lieu- 
tenant-Colonel Morehead is commanding Daniels' Bri- 

May 20 — Three years ago to-day the Old North 
State left the Union, and we went to the front full of 
hopes to speedily show the Yankee Government that 
the South had a right to leave the Union ; but to-day, 
how dark it looks ! 

May 21 — I heard to-day that my brother Morris 
was a prisoner at Fort Delaware, Pa. I asked for a 
parole to-day to go and see my parents in New York, 
but they could not see it. 

May 22 — Nothing new from the front. 

May 23 — We are guarded by negro troops, who are 
as mean as hell. At each meal there is a guard placed 
over 500 prisoners, who go to their meals in ranks 
of four. We are not allowed to cross a certain line, 
called the "Dead Line," but as 500 men go at one 
time to meals, of course near the door there is always 
a rush. To-day one of our men accidentally crossed 
the line. He was pushed over by the crowd, when 
a black devil shot and killed him, and wounded two 

May 24 — One of yesterday's wounded died to-day. 
This negro company was taken away to-day, as there 
[ 64 ] 

Confederate Soldier 

is no telling what even men without arms will do to 
such devils, although they have got guns. 

May 25 — Engle received a letter from his father to- 
day, who told him they had seen my parents, and I 
would hear from them soon. This is the first time 
that I have heard about my parents since the com- 
mencement of the war. Thank God, my parents, as 
well as my sisters and brothers, are well. 
' May 26 — Received two letters to-day, one from 
home and one from my brother Pincus, who went to 
Washington on his way to visit Morris and myself, 
as he has to get a pass from headquarters before he 
can see us. He was refused and returned home. Our 
daily labor as prisoners is that at 5 in the morning 
we have roll call; 6, breakfast, 500 at a time, as one 
lot gets through another takes its place, until four 
lots have eaten ; we then stroll about the prison un- 
til 1 o'clock, when we eat dinner in the same style 
as breakfast, then loaf about again until sundown. 
Roll is called again, thus ending the day. We get for 
breakfast five crackers with worms in them ; as a sub- 
stitute for butter, a small piece of pork, and a tin 
cup full of coffee ; dinner, four of the above crack- 
ers, a quarter of a pound mule meat and a cup of bean 
soup, and every fourth day an eight-ounce loaf of 
white bread. Nothing more this month. 

June 8 — There is nothing new up to to-day, when I 

received a box of eatables, one or two shirts, and one 

pair of pants from home. The only way we can pass 

our time off is playing cards and chess. Six hundred 

" [65] 

Diary of a Tar Heel 

prisoners came in to-day, with them a lady, who is an 
artillery sergeant. Being questioned by the provost 
marshal, she said she could straddle a horse, jump a 
fence and kill a Yankee as well as any rebel. As 
time in prison is very dull and always the same thing 
as the day preceding, I shall not mention each day, 
but only those days upon which something happened. 

June ii — Five hundred more prisoners came in to- 

June 12 — To-day, as the negro guard was relieved, 
two of them commenced playing with their guns and 
bayonets, sticking at one another. Fortunately one 
of their guns, by accident, went off and made a hole 
in the other one's body, which killed him instantly. 
The other one kicked at him several times, telling 
him to get up as the rebels were laughing at him, but 
in a very short time he found out that he had killed 
his comrade and that we were laughing sure enough. 

June 27 — Received money to-day from home, but 
they gave me sutler's checks for it, as we were not 
allowed any money, for fear we would bribe the sen- 
tinels and make our escape. 

July 4 — Four hundred prisoners left here for some 
other prison, as there were too many here. 

July 8 — Engle, Riter and myself received boxes 
from New York to-day, but as Riter has gone to the 
other prison with the 400 we have made away with 
his box. 

Julv 23 — Three hundred more were sent from here 

Confederate Soldier 

to the new prison, which is in Elmira, N. Y., myself 
with them. 

July 25 — Left Point Lookout at 8 o'clock this eve- 
ning in the frigate Victor for New York. There are 
700 prisoners on board. 

July 26 — To-day on the ocean a great many of our 
boys were seasick, but not I. I was promised a guard 
to take me to see my parents in New York for thirty 

July 27 — We see the Jersey shore this morning. 
Our vessel was racing with another. We had too 
much steam up; the consequence was a fire on board, 
but we soon had it out. We landed at Jersey City at 
12 M., and were immediately put in cars, and the 
officer that promised to send me to my parents re- 
fused to do so. We left here at 1, got to Elmira at 
8 in the evening. 

July 28 — We were treated very good on the road, 
and especially at Goshen, N. Y. The ladies gave us 
eatables and the men gave us tobacco. 

July 29 — There are at present some 3,000 prisoners 
here. I like this place better than Point Lookout. 
We are fenced in by a high fence, in, I judge, a 200- 
acre lot. There is an observatory outside, and some 
Yankee is making money, as he charges ten cents for 
every one that wishes to see the rebels. 

August — Nothing worth recording this month, ex- 
cept that the fare is the same as at Point Lookout. 

September — It is very cold, worse than I have seen 
it in the South in the dead of winter. 

Diary of a Tar Heel 

October — We have got the smallpox in prison, and 
.from six to twelve are taken out dead daily. We can 
buy from prisoners rats, 25 cents each, killed and 
dressed. Quite a number of our boys have gone into 
— the rat business. On the nth of this month there 
were 800 sick prisoners sent South on parole. 

November and December — Nothing, only bitter 
cold. We dance every night at some of our qua.ters. 
Some of the men put a white handkerchief around 
one of their arms, and these act as the ladies. We 
have a jolly good time. 


The Year 1865 

January — Nothing, only that I fear that our cause 
is lost, as we are losing heavily, and have no more 
men at home to come to the army. Our resources 
in everything are at an end, while the enemy are 
seemingly stronger than ever. All the prisoners in 
Northern prisons, it seems, will have to stay until the 
°end of the war, as Grant would rather feed than 
fight us. 

February — The smallpox is frightful. There is not 
a day that at least twenty men are taken out dead. 
Cold is no name for the weather now. They have 
given most of us Yankee overcoats, but have cut the 
skirts off. The reason of this is that the skirts are 
long and if they left them on we might pass out as 
Yankee soldiers. 

March — Nothing new. It is the same gloomy and 
•discouraging news from the South, and gloomy and 
•discouraging in prison. 

April — I suppose the end is near, for there is no 
more hope for the South to gain her independence. 
On the 10th of this month we were told by an officer 

Diary of a Tar Heel 

that all those who wished to get out of prison by tak- 
ing the oath of allegiance to the United States could 
do so in a very few days. There was quite a consul- 
tation among the prisoners. On the morning of the 
12th we heard that Lee had surrendered on the 9th, 
and about 400, myself with them, took the cursed oath 
and were given transportation to wherever we wanted 
to go. I took mine to New York City to my parents, 
whom I have not seen since 1858. Our cause is lost;, 
our comrades who have given their lives for the in- 
dependence of the South have died in vain ; that is, 
the cause for which they gave their lives is lost, but 
they positively did not give their lives in vain. They 
gave it for a most righteous cause, even if the Cause- 
was lost. Those that remain to see the end for which 
they fought — what have we left? Our sufferings and. 
privations would be nothing had the end been other- 
wise, for we have suffered hunger, been without suffi- 
cient clothing, barefooted, lousy, and have suffered 
more than any one can believe, except soldiers of the 
Southern Confederacy. And the end of all is a deso- 
lated home to go to. When I commenced this diary 
of my life as a Confederate soldier I was full of hope 
for the speedy termination of the war, and our inde- 
pendence. I was not quite nineteen years old. I am 
now twenty-three. The four years that I have given 
to my country I do not regret, nor am I sorry for one 
day that I have given — my only regret is that we have 
lost that for which we fought. Nor do I for one- 
moment think that we lost it by any other way than 
[70] ' 

Confederate Soldier 

by being outnumbered at least five if not ten to one. 
The world was open to the enemy, but shut out to 
us. I shall now close this diary in sorrow, but to the 
last I will say that, although but a private, I still say 
our Cause was just, nor do I regret one thing that I 
have done to cripple the North. 

The following sketch is taken from Clark's "His- 
tory of the War," written by my Colonel Morehead. 
This gives the endurance of my company, regiment 
and brigade after I was captured. 



History of the Fifty-third Regiment from 
May 5, 1864 

(Taken from Col. James T. Morehead's History of 
the Regiment) 

On the 5th or 6th of May, 1864, the sharpshoot- 
ers of this regiment were much annoyed by one of 
the Federal sharpshooters, who had a long-range rifle 
and who had climbed up a tall tree from which he 
could pick off our men, though sheltered by stump 
and stones, himself out of range of our guns. Pri- 
vate Leon, of Company B (Mecklenburg), concluded 
that this thing would have to stop, and taking advan- 
tage of every knoll, hollow, and stump, he crawled 
near enough for his rifle to reach, took a pop at this 
disturber of the peace, and he came tumbling down. 
Upon running up to his victim, Leon discovered him 
to be a Canadian Indian, and clutching his scalp- 
lock, dragged him to our line of sharpshooters. 

The regiment was at Lynchburg when the pursuit 

of Hunter began. Marching with General Early to 

Washington, D. C, was one of the regiments left to 

support the picket line under the walls of Washing- 


Confederate Soldier 

ton, while the rest of the corps made good its retreat 
to the valley — the Nineteenth and Sixth Corps of 
the Federal army having been poured into the city 
for its defense. While supporting the pickets, this 
regiment became involved in one of the hottest con- 
flicts in its experience, but succeeded in holding its 
position, repulsing and driving the enemy back to the 
earthworks which defended the city. At midnight it 
received orders to retire in perfect silence, and to the 
surprise of all, when we reached the position on the 
hills near the city, where we had left the corps, it 
was ascertained that the corps had left the night be- 
fore, twenty-four hours — and we marched the whole 
night and the greater part of the next day before we 
caught up with the rear guards. Early's ruse, as 
usual, had succeeded in deceiving the enemy. 

This regiment participated in all the battles in the 
Valley in 1864, and in numerous combats and skir- 
mishes. In this Valley campaign the regiment lost 
its gallant Colonel Owens, who died at Snicker's 
Ford, near Snicker's Gap, in August, 1864. He had 
been absent since the 10th of May, disabled by wounds 
at Spottsylvania Court House; had returned just as 
the regiment was eating dinner, and almost while we 
were congratulating him on his safe return we re- 
ceived notice that the enemy had crossed the river at 
Snicker's Ford. The order to "fall in" was given, 
we marched to the river, and drove the enemy across, 
after a short but severe conflict. The firing had ceased,, 
excepting now and then a dropping shot, when Col- 

Diary of a Tar Heel 

onel Owens was killed by one of these stray shots. 
He was a good officer, brave, humane, social, popu- 
lar with both men and officers. He was succeeded by 
the writer as Colonel. At Winchester, on 19th Sep- 
tember, 1864, Adjutant Osborne was killed. Two 
years ago, Color Sergeant Taylor, of Company E, 
Surry County, who had resided in Utah since 1866, 
visited me. He received a ball in his hip, from which 
wound he still limps, and in talking about his own 
wound, he told me as we were charging the third 
Federal line at Winchester, having broken the first 
two, and when near the temporary breastwork of the 
enemy he received the shot which disabled him for 
life, and that, as he fell, young Osborne picked up 
the flag, and waving it, ran forward, cheering on the 
men, and was killed within twenty feet of the color 
sergeant. He was an efficient officer and daring sol- 
dier, I suppose not older than twenty years. Lieut. 
W. R. Murray, of Company A, than whom there was 
not a better officer or braver soldier in the "Old 
Guard" of Napoleon, acted as adjutant after the death 
of Osborne till the surrender of Appomattox. 

As stated before, Major Iredell, a true gentleman 
and brave soldier, was killed at Spottsylvania Court 
House. Capt. John W. Rierson succeeded him. At 
Winchester, finding that there was a gap of two or 
three hundred yards between my left and the troops 
on the left, and that the enemy had discovered and 
were preparing to take advantage of it, I directed 
Major Rierson to find General Grimes on the right of 

Confederate Soldier 

the division (General Rodes had been killed in the 
beginning of the action), and apprise him of the sit- 
uation. After some time he returned, saluted, and re- 
ported, the fighting being very heavy all the time, 
when I discovered that Major Rierson was shot 
through the neck, which wound was received before 
he found General Grimes, but he nevertheless per- 
formed the duty, returned, and reported, and did not 
then go to the rear until I directed him to do so. 
This gallant officer was killed when the enemy broke 
over our lines at Petersburg, a few days before Ap- 
pomattox. He was entitled to his commission as 
lieutenant-colonel from the date of the battle of 
Snicker's Ford, but I do not know that he received it. 

This was a volunteer regiment, enlisted in the lat- 
ter part of the winter and first part of the spring of 
1862, and was organized at Camp Mangum, near 
Raleigh, the first week in May, 1862, and assigned 
to Daniels' Brigade (Rodes' Division). William A. 
Owens, of Mecklenburg County, was elected colonel; 
James T. Morehead, of Guilford County, lieutenant- 
colonel, and James Johnson Iredell, of Wake County, 

Colonel Owens had already been in service more 
than one year, having served as captain in the First 
(Bethel) Regiment, and at the time of his election 
was lieutenant-colonel of the Eleventh Regiment. 

Lieutenant-Colonel Morehead had also been in the 
service the year before, having entered the same in 
April, 1861, as lieutenant of the "Guilford Grays" 

Diary of a Tar Heel 

(afterward Company B of the Twenty-seventh Regi- 
ment), and at the time of his election was a captain in 
the Forty-fifth Regiment. 

William B. Osborne, of Mecklenburg County, was 
appointed captain and assistant quartermaster. He re- 
signed in the fall of 1862, and was succeeded by 
Capt. John B. Burwell. J. F. Long was appointed 
surgeon; Lauriston H. Hill, of Stokes County, as- 
sistant surgeon, and promoted surgeon in 1863. Wil- 
liam Hill, of Mecklenburg, was appointed Captain 
A. C. S. In 1863, Charles Gresham, of Virginia, was 
assigned to duty with this regiment as assistant sur- 
geon. James H. Colton, of Randolph County, was 
appointed chaplain ; . J. H. Owens, sergeant-major 
(promoted second lieutenant of Company I and 
killed); R. B. Burwell, quartermaster-sergeant; J. C. 
Palmer, commissary sergeant; R. S. Barnett, ord- 
nance sergeant. Upon the promotion of J. H. Owens, 
Aaron Katz, of Company B, succeeded him as ser- 
geant-major, and upon his being captured, Robert A. 
Fleming, of Company A, was sergeant-major. 

Company A was from Guilford County. A. P. Mc- 
Daniel was its first captain, commissioned February 
25, 1862, and upon his retirement in 1863, Lieut. J. M. 
Sutton was promoted captain and wounted at Beth- 
esda Church, and on September 21, 1864, in the Val- 
ley, and captured at Petersburg; P. W. Haterick: 
(killed at Gettysburg), first lieutenant; J. M. Sutton, 
second lieutenant; W. L. Flemming, promoted from 
sergeant to second lieutenant in 1863 ; J. W. Scott,. 

Confederate Soldier 

promoted second lieutenant from sergeant (chief of 
regimental corps of sharpshooters). 

Company B was from Mecklenburg County, and 
its first captain was J. Harvey White, commissioned 
March i, 1862, killed at Spottsylvania Court House 
in May, 1864. Samuel E. Belk, first lieutenant; John 
M. Springs, second lieutenant, promoted assistant 
quartermaster ; William M. Matthews, second lieuten- 
ant, promoted from first sergeant; M. E. Alexander, 
promoted second lieutenant from second sergeant. 
Lieutenants Belk, Matthews and Alexander were 
wounded at Gettysburg. 

Company C was from Johnston, Chatham, and 
Wake, mostly from Johnston. Its first captain was 
John Leach, commissioned February 28, 1862 ; was 
succeeded as captain by J. C. Richardson (wounded 
at Petersburg), commissioned April 27, 1863, both 
from Johnston County ; George T. Leach, of Chatham, 
commissioned first lieutenant March 7, 1862 ; John H. 
Tomlinson, of Johnston County, commissioned second 
lieutenant July 21, 1862. 

Company D was from Guilford, Cumberland, For- 
syth, Stokes, Bladen, and Surry. David Scott, Jr., 
of Guilford County, was commissioned captain March 
1, 1862, resigned, and was succeeded May 15, 1863, by 
Alexander Ray, of Cumberland County, promoted 
from first Jieutenant and killed at Petersburg, April, 
1865. Alexander Ray was commissioned first lieu- 
tenant March 1, 1862; Madison L. Efland, of Guil- 
ford County, commissioned second lieutenant March 

Diary of a Tar Heel 

l, 1862, promoted first lieutenant May 15, 1863, and 
wounded ; A. H. Westmoreland, Stokes County, was 
promoted from the ranks to second lieutenant in 1863. 

Company E was from Surry County. J. C. Nor- 
man was commissioned captain on March 8, 1862, re- 
signed the following December, and was succeeded 
by First Lieut. Rogert A. Hill, killed in 1864, suc- 
ceeded in turn as captain by First Lieut. B. W. Min- 
ter; Samuel Walker was commissioned second lieu- 
tenant March 8, 1862, promoted to first lieutenant 
December, 1862, and resigned ; B. W. Minter, sec- 
ond lieutenant, promoted first lieutenant and captain ; 
Henry Hines, second lieutenant, in 1862 ; Logan Be- 
mer, promoted from corporal to second lieutenant, 
wounded and captured, in 1864 ; James A. Hill, sec- 
ond lieutenant, captured in 1864. 

Company F was from Alamance and Chatham. 
G. M. G. Albright was commissioned captain May 5, 
1862, killed July, 1863, at Gettysburg, and succeeded 
by A. G. Albright, promoted from first lieutenant 
(wounded at Fisher's Hill, 1864) ; Jesse M. Holt, first 
lieutenant, July 16, 1863, promoted from second lieu- 
tenant (killed at Winchester, 1864) ; Branson Lambe, 
commissioned in 1864, promoted from second lieuten- 
ant ; John J. Webster, commissioned second lieuten- 
ant May, 1862, and resigned ; S. J. Albright, commis- 
sioned second lieutenant in 1862, and killed at Spott- 
sylvania Court House in 1864. 

Company G was from Stokes County. Capt. 
Spottswood B. Taylor was commissioned captain on 
[ 78 ] 

Confederate Soldier 

March 20, 1862, and resigned May, 1862; was suc- 
ceeded by John W. Rierson, promoted from second 
lieutenant, and who was, in 1863, promoted to ma- 
jor, wounded at Winchester, and killed at Peters- 
burg, April, 1865. He was in time succeeded as cap- 
tain by H. H. Campbell, promoted from first lieuten- 
ant, and killed at Winchester. G. B. Moore was com- 
missioned first lieutenant in March, 1862, and re- 
signed in June; John W. Rierson commissioned sec- 
ond lieutenant March, 1862 ; W. H. McKinney was 
promoted from the ranks in May, 1862, to second lieu- 
tenant, and wounded at Winchester; C. F. Hall, pro- 
moted from the ranks to second lieutenant, mortally 
wounded at Gettysburg; W. F. Campbell, promoted 
first lieutenant, and wounded at Washington, D. C. 

Company H was from Stokes County. Capt. 
Spottswood B. Taylor was commissioned on March 
20, 1862, and resigned on account of ill-health, Novem- 
ber, 1863, and was succeeded by John E. Miller, pro- 
moted from second lieutenant, who was wounded at 
Snicker's Ford and captured, 1864 ; Thomas S. Bur- 
nett, commissioned first lieutenant March 20, 1862, 
and killed in 1863 ; Charles A. McGehee, first lieuten- 
ant, 1862, wounded at Gettysburg, July, 1863, and 
captured ; Alexander M. King, second lieutenant, 
March, 1862 ; J. Henry Owens, promoted second lieu- 
tenant from sergeant-major, December, 1862, and 
killed ; Alexander Boyles, promoted first lieutenant. 

Company I was from Union County. E. A. Jerome 
was commissioned captain March 20, 1862, and re- 

Diary of a Tar Heel 

signed in June following, and was succeeded by- 
Thomas E. Ashcraft, promoted from first lieutenant; 
John D. Cuthbertson, commissioned second lieutenant 
March 20, 1862, promoted first lieutenant; Joshua 
Lee, commissioned second lieutenant March 20, 1862 ; 
James E. Green, promoted from the ranks, second 
lieutenant, June 24, 1862; A. T. Marsh, promoted 
from sergeant to second lieutenant May 19, 1864. 

Company K was from Wilkes County. William J. 
Miller was commissioned captain March 20, 1862, 
killed at Gettysburg, July 1, 1863, and was succeeded 
by Jesse F. Eller, promoted from second lieutenant; 
Thomas C. Miller, promoted from second lieutenant to 
first lieutenant, July 1, 1863; Thomas C. Miller, com- 
missioned to second lieutenant in August, 1862. 

This regiment lost in killed its first colonel, who was 
twice wounded ; both of its majors, one of them, Rier- 
son, several times wounded, and its adjutant. Its 
surviving colonel was wounded three times — at Gettys- 
burg, Fisher's Hill, and in the assault upon the Fed- 
eral lines at Hare's Hill on March 25, 1865, in which 
last engagement he was captured within the enemy's 

As it is, I have only the approximately correct re- 
port of the losses of one of the companies of the regi- 
ment, and that only in one battle, but I think the 
losses of the other companies may be fairly estimated 
from the losses of this one. 

Company B lost at Gettysburg, out of sixtv-five 

Confederate Soldier 

men, eight killed and twenty-two wounded, and of the 
four officers, three were wounded. 

I meet many of these scarred and now grizzly vet- 
erans of the companies from Alamance, Guilford, 
Stokes, and Surry at my courts in these counties, and 
hear, sometimes from those from the other counties, 
and with very few exceptions, they have shown them- 
selves to be as good citizens as they were gallant sol- 
diers. They illustrate that "peace hath her victories 
no less renowned than war." 

The regiment, reduced to a handful of men, shared 
the fortunes of the historic retreat, and surrendered 
at Appomattox, being then commanded by Capt. 
Thomas E. Ashcraft, the brigade being commanded 
by Col. David G. Cowand. General Grimes having 
been made a major-general, commanded the division. 

I cannot close this sketch without acknowledging 
my indebtedness to Captain Sutton and Private J. 
Montgomery, of Company A ; L. Leon, of Company 
B, who kindly furnished me with copy of a diary kept 
by him from the organization of the regiment up to 
May, 1864, when he was captured; Captain Albright, 
of Company F; Capt. S. B. Taylor, of Company H, 
and Lieut. W. F. Campbell, of Company G, for val- 
uable information ; and the hope that the publication 
of the sketches of the North Carolina regiments will 
excite interest enough among the old soldiers to give 
us further dates and incidents. I wish I could write 
a history of my regiment which would do the officers 
and men full credit for their patriotism and services. 

Diary of a Tar Heel 

The patriotism and heroism of these soldiers were 
illustrated by the patient and uncomplaining endurance 
of the forced march, the short rations, the hardships 
of winter camps and campaigns as much as by their 
fighting qualities. Posterity will hesitate to decide 
which is most worthy of admiration. 

Greensboro, N. C, 
April 9, 1 90 1. 
























Edgecombe Guards. Capt. John L. Bridgers. 
Hornet's Nest Riflemen. Capt. L. S. Williams. 
Charlotte Grays. Capt. E. A. Ross. 
Orange Light Infantry. Capt. R. J. Ashe. 
Buncombe Riflemen. Capt. W. W. McDowell. 
Lafayette Light Infantry. Capt. J. B. Starr. 
Burke Rifles. Capt. C. N. Avery. 
Fayetteville Independent Light Infantry. Capt. W. 

Enfield Blues. Capt. D. B. Bell. 
Southern Stars. Capt. W. J. Hoke. 5 



E. A. Ross, Capt., P. Maj. of D. L. Bringle, 5th or Ensign. 

11th N. C. W. D. Elms, 1st corporal, 

E. B. Cohen, 1st lieut. P. Capt., 37th N. C. 

T. B. Trotter, 2nd lieut. W. B. Taylor, 2nd corporal, 

C. W. Alexander, 2nd lieut. P. 2nd lieut., Co. A, 

C. R. Staley, orderly sergeant. 11th N. C. 

J. P. Elms, 2nd sergeant, Henry Terris, 3rd corporal. 

P. lieut., 37th N. C. George Wolfe, 4th corporal. 

J. G. McCorkle, 3rd lieut. Dr. J. B. Boyd, surgeon. 
W. G. Berryhill, 4th lieut. 


M. R. Alexander. Wm. Brown. 

T. A. Alexander. Wm. J. Brown. 

Lindsey Adams. Ed. F. Britton. 

J. P. Andrey, P. Capt., L. Behrends. 

49th N. C. Wm. Calder. 

W. E. Andrey, P. Capt., J. W. Cathey. 

30th N. C. S. P. Caldwell. 

A. H. Brown. J. F. Crawson. 

[ 83 ] ' ; 

Diary of a Tar Heel 

T. B. Cowan. 

T. J. Campbell. 

J. W. Clendennen. 

J. F. Collins. 

T. G. Davis. 

J. T. Downs, P. Lieut, 

30th N. C. 
L. W. Downs. 
J. P. A. Davidson. 
J. R. Dunn. 
J. Engel. 
J. M. Earnheanut. 
M. F. Ezzell. 
J. A. Ezzell. 
S. H. Elliott. 
J. A. Elliott. 
R. H. Flow. 
James Flore. 
I. S. A. Frazier. 
R. H. Grier, P. Lieut., 

49th N. C. 
J. C. Grier, P. Capt., 49th N. C. 
J. M. Grier. 
J. A. Gibson. 
D. P. Glenn. 
J. R. Gribble. 
N. Gray. 
R. L. Gillespie. 
D. W. Hall. 
J. C. Hill. 
W. J. Hill. 
H. H. Hill. 
W. Lee Harrel, P. Capt., 

A 11th N. C. 
Robt. H. Hand, P. Lieut., 

A 11th N. C. 
R. H. Howard. 
Thomas Howard. 
Jas. M. Hutchison. 
Cynes N. Hutchison. 
Tom F. Hoton 
Tom H. Harkey. 
S. Hymans. 
Harper C. Houston. 
T. Lindsev Holms. 

Jas. T. Haskell. 

W. T. Hanser. 

George T. Herron. 

Geo. W. Howey. 

Jacob Harkey. 

L. P. Henderson. 

Jack R. Isreal. 

Wm. S. Icehower. 

E. P. Ingold. 

Robt. W. Johnston. 

Jacob Katz. 

Wm. H. Kistler. 

Jack A. Kinsey. 

J. H. Knox. 

Robt. Keenan. 

Louis Leon. 

J. C. Levi. 

Jacob Leopold. 

Henry Moyle. 

Tom F. McGinn. 

John McKinley. 

Wm. McKeever. 

D. Watt McDonald. 

John H. McDonald. 

Robt. J. Monteith. 

Moses O. Monteith. 

Sam'l J. McElroy. 

Jack Norment. 

Isaac Norment. 

Wm. B. Neal. 

L. M. Neal. 

S. R. Neal. 

P. A. Neal. 

Thos. W. Neely. 

S. Oppenheim. 

J. T. Orr. 

John L. Osborne. 

J. E. Orman. 

Mack Pettus. 

S. A. Phillips.* 

W. R. Carter. 

R. A. Carter. 

John G. Cotts, P. Lieut., 

49th Rgt. 
Wm. M. Patts. 


Confederate Soldier 

Lawson A. Cotts, P. Capt., David I. Sample. 

37th N. C. James M. Saville. 

Calvin M. Queny. Robt. Frank Simpson. 

Theo. C. Ruddock. S. E. Todd. 

J. R. Rea. Wm. Todd. 

D. B. Rea. John W. Treloan. 

Wm. D. Stone. Hugh A. Tate. 

W. Steele. Charles B. Watt. 

Jim W. Stowe. B. Frank Watt. 

Wm. E. Sizer. C. C. Wingate. 
J. Monroe Sims, Q. M. Sergt, T. D. Wolfe. 

11th N. C. T. J. Wolfe. 

Richard A. Springs. John Wiley. 
C. Ed. Smith. 
S. B. Smith. 

M. H. Smith. BY W. B. TAYLOR. 

W. J. B. Smith. 

W. H. Saville. Aug. 24th, 1899. 

John W. Sample. Total, 143 officers and men. 



Co. A. Guilford. Capt. A. P. McDaniel. 

Co. B. Mecklenberg. Capt. J. H. White. 

Co. C. Johnson; Chatham; Wake. Capt. John Leach. 

Co. D. Guilford; Cumberland; Forsythe; Stokes; Bladen; 

Surry. Capt. David Scott. 
Co. E. Surry. Capt. J. C. Norman. 
Co. F. Alamance; Chatham. Capt. G. M. G. Albright. 
Co. G. Stokes. Capt. G. W. Clark. 
Co. H. Stokes. Capt. S. B. Taylor. 
Co. I. Union. Capt. Thomas E. Ashcraft. 
Co. K. Wilkes. Capt. W. J. Miller. 


J. H. White,, captain, k. W. M. Matthews, lieut. 

S. E. Belk, captain, k. M. E. Alexander; lieut. 

J. M. Springs, lieut. 


Diary of a Tar Heel 


R. J. Patterson, w. 
S. M. Blair. 
R. A. Davis. 
A. N. Gray. 

W. R. Baily. 
R. H. Todd, k. 
Alexander, W. H., k. 


Alexander, J. W., d. 
Alexander, Benj. P., d. 
Alexander, Benj. C. 
Anderson, Wm., d. 
Atchison, Wm., c. and w. 
Armstrong, Leroy, c. 
Barnett, W. A., k. 
Barnett, R. S. 
Barnett, E. L. S. 
Berryhill, W. A., c. 
Berryhill, Andrew, w. 
Berryhill, Alex. 
Barnes, S. S., d. 
Bruce, G. W. 
Burwell, J. B. 
Benton, Sam'l, w. 
Baker, G. F., w. 
Cochran, J. M. 
Cochran, Wm. R. 
Cochran, R. C. 
Catchcoat, J. H., w. 
Capps, John, d. 
Caton, Elijah, w. and c. 
Caton, Sylv., c. and d. 
Clark, W. H. 
Clark, W. C. 
Clark, A. W. 
Collins, John, k. 
Campbell, J. P. 
Davis, W. A., d. 
Demon, Jacob. 
Donnell, W. T., w. and c. 
Engenburn, J. 
Eagle, John, w. 

Eagle, W. H. 
Epps, W. D., k. 
Engel, Jonas. 
Frazier, J. L. 
Fincher, Asa. 
Farrices, Z. W. 
Frazier, J. C. R. 
Grier, J. G, w. 
Giles, M. O. 
Giles, S. H. 
Howie, J. M. 
Howie, Sam'l M., w. 
Howie, F. M., w. 
Hall, H. L., w. 
Hood, R. L., c. 
Harry, W. B., w. 
Hoover, F. M. 
Katz, Aaron. 
King, P. A., k. 
Kirkpatrick, T. A. 
Knox, J. S. 
Leon, Louis. 
Love, D. L. 
Marks, S. S., c. 
Marks, J. G., w. 
Marks, T. E., k. 
Marks, W. S. 
McGinn, Thos. 
McElroy, Jas. W., k. 
Mitchell, C. J. 
McKinney, Wm. 
McKinney, T. A., c. 
Merritt, Wm. N., k. 
McCrary, Jordan. 


Confederate Soldier 

Morrison, J. M. 
McCombs, A. H., w. and c. 
Maxwell, P. P., w. 
McCrum, H. A., k. 
Norment, A. A., k. 
Otters, Cooney, c. and d. 
Owens, J. Henry, k. 
Oates, Jas. 
Potts, Jas. H. 
Patterson, S. L. 
Parks, Miah, c. 
Reid, H. K. 
Reid, J. R, k. 
Robinson, Thomp. 
Russell, H. T., c. 
Rodden, N. B. f w. 
Rodden, W. R, k. 
Robinson, J. P. 
Smith, Lemuel. 
Sweat, J. M. 
Sample, H. B., c. 
Sample, David. 
Sample, J. W. 
Sample, J. M., c. 
Springs, R. A. 

Stone, W. D., w. and c. 
Sulivan, W. L. 
Stewart, W. S., d. 
Taylor, J. W., w. 
Todd, S. E. 
Thomas, Henry. 
Trotter, A. G. 
Trotter, Thos., d. 
Vickers, E. N. 
Worthern, Henry, d. 
Wilkenson, Neil, k. 
Wolfe, C. H. 
Winders, P. S., c. 
Wilson, L. R., c. 
Wilson, J. H, k. 
Wilson, S. W., w. and c. 
Wilson, J. M. 
Wilkinson, R. L. 
Williams, Hugh. 
Williams, J. W. 
Williams, A. L. 
Williamson, A. L., c. 
Williamson, J. M., c. 
White, J. T. 

Total, 110; killed, 16; wounded 21; died, 12; captured, 2a 





Each one of these publications has high 
merit. Mechanically they represent the high- 
est achievements in the art of book-making, 
easily ranking with the choicest production 
of the oldest and best known publishers in 
America, and they present both in text and 
illustrations as do no other publications of 
theii class, the thought and life of 





By Isaac Erwin Avery, edited by Prof. Edwin Mims, late 
of Trinity College, and University North Carolina, now of 
Vanderbilt. New edition with a dedication to the late Joseph 
Pearson Caldwell, by Wade H. Harris, editor Charlotte 
Observer. The plates of the book are the property of 
Trinity College and all royalties from its sale go to the 
Erwin Avery Scholarship Fund of Trinity College. 

Cloth: $1.50 net; postpaid $1.62. Special Gift Edition. 
'Green Ooze Calf — bound "Roycroftie," $2.50. 


"Idle Comments." — In a former issue we had a brief no- 
tice of this delightful book, which we wish now to notice 
more fully. 

These papers came out at different intervals in the Char- 
lotte Observer, and when they first appeared, the reading 
public realized that a new star had appeared upon the hori- 
zon, though we all realized also that no one could get a 
•proper idea of the writer from these occasional articles. 

However, even with these disadvantages, the articles were 
read with eagerness and quoted with delight. 

Now that they are before us in book form, we are really 
astonished at their cumulative power over us. 

There is nothing in American prose that can excel them. 
They range from frolic to the severest morality, and through 
them all there runs a vein of pathos that touches the ten- 
■derest part of our natures. 

His heart seems peculiarly susceptible to the tragedy of 
the fallen women, which is seen in the article of the Girl 
with a white dress, or the death in Springs Alley. 

Mr. Avery did not live long enough to prove whether he 
could write anything more ambitious than these fugitive 
pieces, but we believe that the man who could write as he 
did, day after day, was capable of anything in the line of 

North Carolina has reason to be proud of her literary chil- 
dren, and among them she rightly places Erwin Avery at the 

We are indebted to the Stone Company of Charlotte for 

the beautiful new edition of "Idle Comments" by I. E. Avery. 
The book is dedicated to Joseph Pearson Caldwell, the 
greatest editor North Carolina has produced, and the 
prefatory note is written by Wade H. Harris, the present 
editor of the Charlotte Observer. Avery occupies a unique 
position among our North Carolina men of letters. Thia 
book, which embraces the cream of his writings, is fresh, 
natural and wholesome, and the Stone Company have done 
a great service in bringing it out in this very attractive form. 

"Idle Comments" is a volume made up of the miscellane- 
ous writings of Mr. Avery, who during his service with the 
Observer ran each Monday morning a column of philosophi- 
cal musings, humorous comments and human interest nar- 
ratives under the general head, "Idle Comments." The col- 
lection embraced in the book, however, is not confined to 
what appeared in that feature, the other notable writings 
also being selected from his work on the paper. The book 
was edited by Dr. Edward Mims, head of the department of 
English Literature at Trinity College, and later at the Uni- 
versity, now a member of the faculty of Vanderbilt Univer- 
sity and so admirably executed is the work that this vol- 
ume appears as if it had been written in just the order irt 
which it appears by Mr. Avery. — Charlotte Observer. 

With the rush of the Christmas season driving his force 
to work day and night, and with his own hands filled with 
tasks unfinished, the writer has sat for two hours idly turn- 
ing the leaves of the book that holds for posterity the charm, 
of Avery's pen and the fascination of his personality. 

If there is another of North Carolina's sons whose pen 
has the power to move and to charm as does Avery's, we 
have not found him. And if there is any book, of the thou- 
sands turned off the presses of the nation this year, wherein 
one hears the voices of the children or catches so really the 
fragrance of flowers, we have not, seen it. 

What present for Christmas is so appropriate as a book? 
What book could be bestowed with better taste than Avery's 
"Idle Comments," which truly breathes a Christmas Spirit?' 
— Elisabeth City Advance. 

Charlotte, N. C. 

" Songs Merry and Sad " 

By John Charles McNeill. Sixth edition. Cloth, $1.00 
net. By mail $1.06. Limp Leather (Brown 
Ooze Calf, bound " Roycroftie,") $1.50 postpaid. 

Some Press and Other Comments 

" I have read after Mr. McNeill and I have enjoyed his work." 

— Theodore Roosevelt. 

" The published poems of John Charles McNeill are said to 
be meeting with a ready sale. The fact is a compliment to 
the literary taste of North Carolina people." — Editorial in 
Greensboro Telegram. 

" It is not too much to say that in the realm of pure poetry no 
more satisfying volume than this has been published in the United 
States in a decade." — Norfolk Landmark. 

" It is a neat book and contains fifty-nine poetic gems from 
the pen of Mr. McNeill. It is a fortunate thing that they have 
been grouped into book form that they can better be preserved 
and in that shape constitute a lasting and valuable contribution 
to North Carolina literature." — Editorial in the Wilmington Star. 

" His work I think is the most ambitious and the most suc- 
cessful of all Southern verse writers of the day." — Interview in 
Birmingham Age-Herald. 

" One must go across the Atlantic to Stephen Phillips to find 
so tender a note and so deft a touch as Mr. McNeill here reveals." 

— Editorial in the Biblical Recorder. 

" Seems to have in him the making of a great poet." — Editorial 
in Progressive Farmer. 

" He is one of the rarest literary geniuses we have in the 
South." — Editorial in the Raleigh Christian Advocate. 

"The verses in this volume have about them that indefinable 
quality which distinguishes poetry from mere verse. The work- 
manship is so good that one almost doubts sometimes whether 
it is not only the perfection of technique that allures and whether 
the true soul of the poet is really here and not only the hand of 
the artist. But as we read on we begin to see that the singer's 


lips have indeed been touched with the glowing coal from the 
true altar of song. We congratulate Mr. McNeill on this 
charming volume." — Charleston News and Courier. 

" His discrimination was splendid — he embraces in this volume 
the best verse he has written. We hold him as the genius of 
North Carolina, and this little volume justifies the claim." — 
Editorial in the Charlotte Observer. 

" The delicious Southern flavor and the tender touches of the 
old plantation life make it especially refreshing to our Southern 
people. It is the very cream of the work of the young author, 
which has brought him the favor of the public in so great a 
measure. It is perfectly free from affectation, but it is couched 
in faultless English and reveals the highest gifts of the poet." — 
Editorial in Charity and Children. 

" Mr. McNeill is fast becoming one of the leading writers of 
the South." — Editorial in the Clarkton Express. 

" He has the gift, and there are those who are hoping that 
the South shall have in him the poet who shall speak to the 
heart of the world." — Editorial in the Presbyterian Standard. 

" In the death of John Charles McNeill the State loses the finest 
poetic genius ever born within its borders." 

" But not one of these was the equal of McNeill. He surpassed 
them in natural endowment, in range and delicacy of sympathy, 
in loving familiarity with the homes and habits of woodland 
things, in subtle knowledge of the great primal emotions of the 
heart, and in that still rarer gift of craftsmanship, without which 
the greatest genius must remain inarticulate. McNeill was a 
poet because he looked life straight in the eyes, felt the virgin 
wonder and glory of it all, and knew how to body forth his 
feelings in lines of exquisite art and compelling appeal. I would 
rather have written ' Songs, Merry and Sad,' than to have the 
costliest monument in the state erected to my memory. The equal 
of that little volume has not appeared in the South since Sidney 
Lanier fell on sleep twenty-six years ago."— C, Alphonso Smith. 

Lyrics From Cotton Land 

Third Edition, with portrait and a short biographical 
sketch of the author, artistically bound in Bandana 
Cloth. Illustrated with five drawings by the cele- 
brated artist made famous by his " Coon " draw- 
ings, E. W. Kemble, one picture by A. B. Frost, 
and eight photographs by Mrs. W. O. Kibble, among 
them a photograph of cotton showing bloom, full 
boll and open boll on the same stalk. Price $1.50 

Orders for this book have come from all sections 
of the United States and Canada. It is easily the 
most distinctively Southern book ever published. 

" ' Lyrics from Cotton Land ' will remain a priceless legacy to 
the children of the South. It is a voice that had become almost 
a memory. It is a key to the treasure house of a period fast 
receding. It glorifies with simple and soulful melody ' the 
tender grace of a day that is dead.' ' Uncle Remus,' up to 
the advent of the brilliant young Scotchman, was the most faithful 
and accurate exponent of ' Mr. Nigger ' in the realm of letters, 
but Joel Chandler Harris is not a whit more life-like in his por- 
trayal of the language as well as of the spirit of the old time 
darkey than John Charles McNeill." — Charity and Children. ■ : 

"Joel Chandler Harris has the black man down perfectly* 
John Charles McNeill puts down the black man's thoughts and 
language with perfect fidelity; and as an interpreter of his 
thoughts and dialect, H. E. C. Bryant is scarcely inferior to 
«ither." — J. P. Caldwell, in the Charlotte Observer. 

" Seldom have we seen a book which has more charm and 
fascination than 'Lyrics from Cotton Land,' by the late John 
Charles McNeill; seldom a book of its character with a wider 
range. Not only are the songs of the South sung as they are 
rarely sung, but throughout is a touch of pathos and humor 


which makes the heart throb and clothes life's stern responsibilities 
with new meaning." — Pinehurst Outlook. 

" If anyone ever says to you again that the South does not 
produce beautiful books, you are hereby authorized to state that 

that person is a mistaken. You will only, for instance, have 

to refer him to Stone & Barringer Co., of Charlotte, N. C, who 
has sent for review among other volumes, a book, ' Lyrics from 
Cotton Land,' by John Charles McNeill, which is as tastily 
produced, attractive in appearance and appropriately bound 
as any book this scribe has seen in a long time." — Birmingham 

" Tinctured with the quaint spirit of the South, ' Lyrics from 
Cotton Land ' contains ninety-seven poems, and every one of 
them is worth thoughtful reading." — San Francisco Examiner. 

" Two years ago John Charles McNeill died and was buried 
near the home of his parents in Scotland county, but he is not 
forgotten, for he left behind a monument more lasting than stone. 
The friends of the charming young Scotchman with the poetic 
gift, did not begin to realize his real worth until after he had 
passed away. His songs and lyrics are more highly and genu- 
inely appreciated to-day than they were when they first came 
from his pen." — H. E. C. Bryant, in Charlotte Observer. 

" A distinct pleasure is felt even in just looking at the Ban- 
dana edition of John Charles McNeill's ' Lyrics from Cotton 
Land.' It is by far the most attarctive book ever published in 
the State. The publishers, Stone & Barringer Co., of Charlotte, 
N. C, have displayed unusual taste in the cover. As the name 
' bandana edition ' signifies, it is bound in gay bandana cloth, 
with a small round picture of a true old Southern mammy on 
the front cover. The whole production is typically Southern and 
unique."— Raleigh Evening Times, 

In Love's Domain 

By H. E. Harman. Cloth $1.50. Limp Leather (Green 
Ooze Calf) $2.50. 

" I want to send you my very sincere thanks for the great service 
you have done me in sending me Mr. Harman's ' In Love's Do- 
main.' My long absence from my native State has caused me 
to miss Mr. Harman's work, and it was a pleasure to find it so 
beautiful and true. It is not a mere versification that I find in 
this book, but poetry, literature and noble feeling cast in noble 
form. I hope you will present my compliments to Mr. Harman, 
and express to him my deep sense of pride in his work and ap- 
preciation of his thoughtfulness." — Edwin A. Alderman, President 
University of Virginia. 

" Poet, publisher and printer have combined their talents to 
make an exquisitely charming volume for the book lovers out of 
' In Love's Domain,' and they have accomplished their task. If 
the magic of the book-maker invites one to the easy chair and 
the fireside, the spell of the poet and the art of the engraver 
have called indoors some of the glory of the fields and the woods. 
That a North Carolina publishing house and a North Carolina 
poet should produce a book of poems in such rich mechanical 
setting calls for due honor and appreciation of North Carolina 
people, and this we hope both author and publishers will receive 
in a measure at least equal to their high desert." — North Caro- 
lina Education. 

" The verse of H. E. Harman has been compiled by Stone & 
Barringer Co., of Charlotte, and issued in book form under the 
title of ' In Love's Domain and the Call of the Woods.' Mr. 
Harman has the gift of poetry, and his book will charm and please 
the reader to the utmost. The illustrations are tasteful and the 
mechanical work neat. Mr. Harman is a business man, but takes 
time to commune with nature and the beautiful things of the 
world, and his verse is a natural expression of the fine thoughts 
within him." — Raleigh Evening Times. 

" There came to our desk this morning the sweetest little book 
we have ever seen. So daintily bound that we were sure that 

within its covers must be beautiful thoughts. We opened it and 
our eyes rested on the following lines: 

" ' When close of day has set the west aglow 

And night comes on with steady steps and slow, 
I yearn for touch of vanished hand again 
And touch of lips as in the long ago.' 

" We read on while the busy world around us rushed on in 
its foolish bustle, until our soul was full of sweet thoughts, and 
we laid the dainty volume away to be read again and again 
in our home after the shadows have caused the curtains to be 
drawn, and we feel that we have a little treasure that will 
brighten our life and chase many gloomy thoughts away. 

" We thank the author, Mr. H. E. Harman, a Southern man, 
for giving to his people a book that is full of beautiful thoughts, 
and appreciate the kindness of the publishers, Stone & Barringer 
Co., of Charlotte, N. C, in sending the book our way. We 
hope every Southern man and woman will get a copy of this 
book." — Burlington Neivs, Burlington, N. C. 

" ' In Love's Domain ' is a most exquisite book of poems. All 
the verses have been given a most artistic setting, and the illus- 
trations are beautiful. No expense appears to have been spared 
by the publishers, and the fact that a Southern publishing house 
can bring out a book of poems in such expensive style shows that 
the South is coming into its own in a literary way. The author 
of ' In Love's Domain ' is Southern, the making of the book is 
Southern, and in the result every Southerner must feel a pride." 
— Norfolk Ledger-Dispatch, Norfolk, Va. 

" ' In Love's Domain ' is a triumph of Southern book making. 
We have seen no volume more artistically and beautifully gotten 
up. Every illustration is inspiring, most of them being from 
photographs. It is a hopeful note for Southern literature that 
such a volume should come from publishers in Dixie. They are 
to be congratulated. 

" The verses of Mr. Harman are exquisite and full deserving 
of their artistic setting. 

" This book is well worth while. It would make a very pretty 


Christmas present." — Charleston News and Courier, Charleston, 

"The volume is nothing less than exquisite. Binding, paper, 
typography, all are exactly in harmony, while no holiday book 
on the market for many years has surpassed ' In Love's Domain ' 
in beauty and aptness of illustration. The pictures of nature 
are particularly fine, those depicting landscapes and woods bring- 
ing with them the very scent of the big out-of-doors. The pub- 
lishers have fully appreciated the value of the work they have 
undertaken and have given it a vehicle which leaves nothing 
to be desired. 1 

" There is in his work the breath of the woods in spring, the 
color of the blooming dogwood, the scent of the fields covered 
with daisies. This world, judging by the view of it given in 
his poetry, is to him a place to be enjoyed, with plenty of sor- 
row mixed in to form the necessary contrast. His note is sweet 
and clear, rather than majestic and compelling." — Review in 
Charlotte Observer. 

" Mr. Harman writes verse, not in the spirit of the professional 
writer, but because many gently beautiful things within him 
struggle for and find beautiful expression. The inner life which 
he combines with business success shows how the South may com- 
bine old ideals with new material advancement. The published 
volume is an exquisite thing, a thorough credit to the publishers. 
' In Love's Domain ' belongs with the Avery and McNeill books, 
belongs in that high lineage." — Editorial in Charlotte Observer. 

" ' In Love's Domain ' is an alluring volume of sweet simplicities 
from the Hills of North Carolina, issued by the Stone & Barringer 
Co., of Charlotte, N. C. This beautiful book is dedicated to 
all ' Who walk the ways of sweet content, outward and back 
again.' Of sweetness and light there is enough in the modest 
volume, and now and then the poignant praises of genius is sung 
in humble measure. H. E. Harman is the name of this new song- 
ster of the South, who prettily names the domains of love as an 
' amber plain.' He will be heard from in more robust fashion 
again, no doubt." — Jacksonville Sunday Times-Union. 

Gates of Twilight 

By H. E. Harman. Cloth $1.50; Limp Leather $2.50. 

" If Harman's vision included to the utmost, the visible tangible 
beauties of the world — and no more — much of ' The Gates of 
Twilight ' would never have been written. 

" Versifiers there have been who hymned the beauties of nature 
without seeming to see anything therein but perfection of sensuous 
loveliness, but their work has promptly been assigned to obliv- 
ion. Harman is not of these. His mind and heart thrill with 
delight at the budding hawthorn, or the willow-shaded stream; 
his soul instantly rouses itself to inquire whether or not there is 
meaning behind these lovely shapes." — From the Charlotte Daily 

" Whoever knows and loves the South will find deep enjoyment 
in the poems which Henry E. Harman has included in his new 
volume. He will also be proud that a Southern publisher has 
produced so beautiful a book. 

" Mr. Harman is at his best when he writes of the South, its 
natural charms and its wealth of historic tradition. Songs of the 
South form a goodly part of the 63 poems. 

" The book is bound in the daintiest blue, and the photographs 
of Southern woodland scenery are both attractive and appropriate 
to the text. There are also several posed photographs." — St. 
Louis Post Dispatch. 

" The keynote of this volume of idyls is struck in the dedica- 
tion, which reads: 

" ' Who loves the sunlight on the hills, 
Who feels a pain at human wrongs, 
Whose" soul at childhood's laughter thrills, 
For him I sing these simple songs.' 

" In many of these poems the author shows an advance over 
his previously published work. The same spontaniety and fresh- 
ness obtain, but there is a firmer touch, a surer confidence, a more 
daring flight. ' The Fields of May ' is, perhaps, the best of 
the longer poems, being full of beauty and musical value. All 


are lofty and uplifting. Two tributes to Southern poets, Sidney 
Lanier and John C. McNeill, are found in this volume. The 
poem ' The Master In the Garden ' is strongly suggestive of 
Lanier's ' Ballad of Trees and the Master,' and is worthy of 
its subject, strong and dignified. The illustrations are from 
photographs, and those of scenes from nature are very attrac- 
tive, and add to the charm of the book." — New Orleans Picayune. 

" A most beautiful piece of book-making. Sixty or more verses 
.with many exquisite illustrations interspersed. The illustrations 
are from photographs, the most being scenes of our southern 
woodland, field, marsh and mountain. Especially fair is the one 
' The Pictured Glory of the Dogwood Trees,' ' Spring Along 
the Fair Savannah,' and ' Willow, My Willow ' are also very 
beautiful. Many of the poems are written in an admirable spirit 
of patriotism, ' Pickett's Charge,' ' Gettysburg,' ' The Sound of 
Sumter's Gun.' 

" One of the most excellent pictures is that of the live oak at 
Brunswick, Ga. Under this tree Sidney Lanier is said to have 
written his ' Marshes of Glynn.' The tree is known the country 
round as 'Lanier's Oak.'" — Birmingham, Alabama, Age-Herald. 

" Tar Heel Tales " 

By H. E. C. Bryant ("Red Buck"). Price, Cloth (North 
Carolina, Brown checked Gingham), $1.25 net. 
By mail $1.35. 

Personal Letters (Published by Permission) 

" I thank you heartily for the copy of ' Tar Heel Tales.' The 
binding is unique and very attractive; the illustrations are ex- 
cellent and illustrate. The best compliment that I can pay to 
the contents is to say that I took the book home the evening afer 
receiving it, and dipped into one of the little stories experimentally 
after supper, and read story after story, finding it impossible 
to lay the book aside until after eleven o'clock, and then laid it 
aside only under orders from Mrs. Joyner. I trust that it will 
have the wide sale it deserves." — J. Y. Joyner, Supt. Public In- 
struction, Raleigh, N. C. 

" Your ' Tar Heel Tales ' are delightful. They are as good 
negro dialect stories as have ever been put into print. This is 
the first book I have read at one sitting in a long time. I hope 
that this is not the last one that you will write." — Champ Clark. 

" I have just finished reading ' Tar Heel Tales,' and am de- 
lighted with it. The stories are bright and sparkling, the humor 
is delicate and refined. The negro dialect is such as only a 
genuine Southerner can write. It is none of the ' make-believe 
sort ' so often found in books by authors unacquainted with the- 
negro at home." — W. R. Mills, Supt Public Schools, Louisburg,. 
N. C. 

" Your stories are delightful, strongly written and true to the 
character of place and people. I think that I have read ' Uncle 
Ben's Last Fox Race' ten times and I shall read it willingly 
ten times more, knowing that after that I shall still have the 
determination to be a ' repeater.' 

" I do not know the negro as you know him, but I have, I 
think a much truer knowledge of him and his ways now that I 
have read ' Tar Heel Tales.' Every Northern man, and I am 
one, should read your story ' A Negro and His Friend.' I have 
several book cases given over entirely to nature books. 'Tar 
Heel Tales ' shall have a chief place among them." — Edward B~ 
Clark, Chicago Evening Post, Washington Correspondent. 


A prominent educator says of Mr. Bryant : "As a writer of 
negro dialect, I do not place him next to Uncle Rumus — Joel 
Chandler Harris — but absolutely his equal; his negroes do not 
use stage negro talk, but they talk, think, and act like the niggers 
I knew as a boy on my father's farm." 

Press notices of " Tar Heel Tales " have been numerous and 

Here are a few extracts: 

"The book is mechanically an interesting product of the book- 
maker's art. The printing, paper and binding are all good. 
The cloth covering used is a brown checked gingham, and the 
title ' Tar Heel Tales ' is twined about with a burry pine bough 
stamped in green and pine-bark brown." — North Carolina Edu- 
cation, Raleigh, N. C. 

" Mr. H. E. C. Bryant, of Charlotte and Washington, knows 
how to tell a good story well. Story-telling with him is a gift 
and an art. In the old days when he was still a bare-footed, 
red headed, freckle-faced farmer boy, even then, he knew how 
to tell a story, and wherever the boys gathered in the Providence 
section, young Bryant was the magnet around which the others 
were attracted, and when he talked, and that was usually all the 
time, the others listened. His powers in the way of story telling 
were a source of wonder and admiration to the other boys. This 
natural gift he has cultivated until now he tells or writes a story 
that will appeal to and hold anyone. His stories of the negro 
and of the old days and of fox hunts, of which sport he is a 
past-master, have long attracted attention and because of the 
place they have gained in the hearts of the people and the in- 
sistent demand for them have at last been issued in book form. 
' Tar Heel Tales ' is the name of the book which is now presented 
to the public." — Evening Times, Raleigh, N. C. 

" The book is a sure enough Tar Heel production. The writer 
is a red-headed Tar Heel. It is dedicated to Mr. J. P. Caldwell, 
the well known Tar Heel editor. It is published by Stone & 
Barringer Co., of Charlotte, N. C, a Tar Heel book company. It 
is bound in checked gingham, a Tar Heel production, and the 
tales (and they are good ones), are about Tar Heel folks. If 
you want a book that will put you in a good humor when you 
have a case of the blues, get this book." — Spring Hope Leader. 


The Breed and the Pasture 

By J. Lenoir Chambers. Cloth, Price $1.00; By Mail 


" In the ' Breed and the Pasture ' we have certain features of 
an easily recognized piedmont community, sketched by the -pea 
of one who knows and loves it well. 

" It is not the purpose of this article to abstract or summarize 
what this exquisite set of essays contains. No one who is in- 
terested in the course of events which have led to the creation 
of the New South can afford not to read every line of them. 
The whole may be completed from cover to cover in a single un- 
interrupted evening. This done, the reader cannot fail to have a 
clearer insight into the meaning of the expression ' down home ' 
and to feel a deeper throbbing of the sentiment conveyed in the 
well known lines beginning, ' Here's to the land of the long-leaf 
pine.' Furthermore, he will have become acquainted with a 
set of essays couched in as clear and beautiful language as any 
that have appeared for many a year, a style that, never becoming 
stilted or over-ornate continues from first to last, lucid, euphon- 
ious, charming. 

" The ' Woman of the South ' has been toasted at countless 
banquets, has been lauded in thousands of fulsome, yet heart- 
felt words. Scores and even hundreds of tributes spring to mind. 
In all the articles this reviewer has ever read dealing with this 
favorite topic, there is not a single one which equals Mr. Cham- 
bers' chapter entitled ' The Forgotten Woman,' in beauty of 
conception and delicacy of execution. 

" The apologists for the South have too frequently over-empha- 
sized the ' story of the glory of the men who wore the gray ' 
to such an extent that economic phenomena have been thrust to 
one side or entirely neglected. The chapter mentioned is a 
dispassionate and philosophical statement, not of a partisan, but 
of a cool-headed, practical man of affairs, of how matters look 
to him from a retrospect of nearly half a century after Appomat- 
tox. The defects of the Southerner are not minimized any more 
than are the undoubted virtues of the Puritan omitted and the 


result is a distinct contribution to the philosophy of the history of 
the Civil War." — Review in Charlotte Observer. 

" Mr. Chambers, whatever his personal experience, could not 
have written as he has done without fine selective imagination 
joined to graceful style. No prosy reminiscences here, but the 
firm touch of a man who has only reached the prime of his life, 
and whom years may never make old. His are different pictures 
from those which the public justly grew tired of long ago. We 
find them delightful. Evanston, the town which Mr. Chambers 
describes, with its neighboring county seat, will be recognized 
at once by many people. Most of his characters belong to this 
present generation — Isaac Erwin Avery among them." — Edito- 
rial in Charlotte Observer. 


Memoir or Julia Jackson Christian 

Daughter of " Stonewall " Jackson, by M. A. Jackson 
(her mother). Charlotte, N. C. Cloth, 50 cents, 

"Stonewall" Jackson's Daughter 

"This is an interesting and pious little memorial of the only 
child of ' Stonewall ' Jackson's that survived infancy, Julia Jackson, 
afterward Mrs. Christian. Julia was born in Charlotte, N. C, 
November 23rd, 1862, while her illustrious father was at the 
front. As General Jackson never left the army on furlough, 
his little daughter was four months old before he saw her, when 
her mother took her to his camp, then at Guiney's, Va. 

" The brief story is simply but tenderly and lovingly written, 
and it should be valued by thousands of ' Confederate ' mothers 
and daughters. The book contains a number of interesting let- 
ters and much information concerning Stonewall Jackson and his 
home life." — Columbia State. 

" This memorial of the brief life of Stonewall Jackson's only 
child, written by the great soldier's venerable widow, cannot 
fail to stir the heart of every Southern reader to whose hands it 

" It is written with the same purity and simplicity of style 
which delighted us in the Life of Gen. T. J. Jackson, from the 
same pen. 

" Even if we did not know her for a hero's daughter, the beau- 
tiful life so beautifully told in this dainty volume would deeply 
interest us. But when we realize to whose intimacy we are here 
admitted, we welcome this memoir with a glow of grateful en- 
thusiasm." — Charlotte Observer. 

" This book, like this article, is, of course, intensely personal. 
Mrs. Jackson has simply taken the people whom she loves into 
her heart and told them a simple story of her 'holy of holies.' 
The people of the south will appreciate the confidence and love 
the Story." — Raleigh Times.